Monday, May 25, 2020
The Significance of Mother-Daughter Relationships in Amy TanÃ¢â¬â¢s The Joy Luck Club In her novel The Joy Luck Club, Amy Tan tells of the lives of four Chinese immigrant mothers, their hopes, their dreams and the way each of their daughters feel about their mothers lives. Mother-daughter relationships are the basis for the entire story. Tan shows the hardships each mother experiences as a child and young adult, and how they all want better lives for their daughters. She shows the struggles between the mothers and the daughters; these struggles result from many different things, from the cultural gap, to dreams and goals that may have been set too high. Each daughter knows her mother means well, but this does not make the battles anyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Throughout the novel readers see that Jing-mei wants to learn about her mother and her mothers past. She wants to learn about SuyuanÃ¢â¬â¢s struggles in China and she wants to meet her two sisters whom her mother had to give up against her will. June is overwhelmed when the other members of The Joy L uck Club give her two tickets to travel to her mothers former residence in China. She is very excited to learn about her past and to understand her mother better. Ying-ying and Lena St. Clair are more alike than they realize even though Lena is a lot more quiet and conservative than Ying-ying ever was. As a child Ying-ying was mischievous and spoiled. She only thinks of herself until the night she visits the moon lady, this is when she comes to realize the true meaning of the special day and how she is to use her one wish. Lena is not as rebellious as her mother, but still tends to follow her own will instead of what her mother wishes for her to do. Lena and Ying-ying both marry bad men who dont understand their needs. Ying-yings first husband is violent and abusive in a physical way, whereas Lenas husband is abusive in a mental way. Harold feels he is treating Lena how he should be really he is being unfair to her. The couple splits the bill on everything, even though sometimes Lena ends up paying for things that she reallyShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Two Kinds By Amy Tan1567 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages One of the most complex relationships is that of a mother and daughter. Amy Tan is an author who writes about her life growing up as an Asian-American in Chinatown. Her novel The Joy Luck Club is a series of short stories about Chinese mothers and their assimilated daughters. One of these stories is Ã¢â¬Å"Two Kinds,Ã¢â¬ which looks into the life of Jing-Mei Woo and her struggle to gain a sense of self. Some key themes in The Joy Luck Club are the generational and intercultural differences among Chinese-AmericanRead MoreConflicts Resolved in the Joy Luck Club1442 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesconflicts in Amy TanÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, The Joy Luck Club. The desire to find ones true identity, along with the reconciliation of their Chinese culture and their American surroundings, is a largely significant conflict among the characters of the novel. In the discovery of ones individuality develops a plethora of conflicts involving the theme of a lack of communication and misinterpretation of one another. Although, as time progresses, the various conflicts of the characters in The Joy Luck Club that poseRead MoreThe Joy Luck Club, The Bonesetter s Daughter, And The Kitchen God s Wife3745 Words Ã |Ã 15 Pagesnovels, The Joy Luck Club, The BonesetterÃ¢â¬â¢s Daughter, and The Kitchen GodÃ¢â¬â¢s Wife, Amy Tan creates the broken relationships of immigrant mothers and their Ã¢â¬Å"AmericanizedÃ¢â¬ daughters who struggle in social barriers they both face as they live in the new setting. Amy Tan analyzes mother-daughter relationships between characterÃ¢â¬â¢s lovers and friends and how they develop over a course of unexpected events. Throughout The Joy Luck Club, The BonesetterÃ¢â¬â¢s Daughter and The Kitchen GodÃ¢â¬â¢s Wife, Amy Tan placesRead MoreThe Joy Luck Club Summary1138 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescriticism, Ã¢â¬Å"Language as Barrier and Bridge in Amy Tans The Joy Luck ClubÃ¢â¬ is written by Mohamed Samir, who is from Faculty of Philosophy department at the University of Vaasa. He enforces the point that despite that the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s have strong roots from China, their daughters through being raised in America, on the other hand, are disconnected. Hence, the daughters are yet to discover their racial identity, but through an honest effort made by their mothers they are guided towards uncovering it. He arguesRead More The Joy Luck Club Essay2220 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesThe Joy Luck Club In The Joy Luck Club, Amy TanÃ¢â¬â¢s first novel, short-story-like vignettes alternate back and forth between the lives of four Chinese women in pre-1949 China and lives of their American-born daughters in California. The book is a mediation on the divided nature of this emigrant life. The novel is narrated horizontally as well as vertically; friendships and rivalries develop among the daughters as well as the mothers.(Matuz 92) As Jing Mei Woo describes, Ã¢â¬Å"Auntie LinRead MoreHuman Oppressiveness in Two Kinds and AP Essay2357 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesIt was Emerson who said it best, Ã¢â¬Å"For nonconformity, the world whips you with its displeasureÃ¢â¬ (Porter 1155). With a detailed look of Amy TanÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Two KindsÃ¢â¬ and John UpdikeÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"AP,Ã¢â¬ you will find that this quote is entirely applicable in the context of oppressiveness and in the likeness of Ã¢â¬Å"coming of age.Ã¢â¬ These two stories document the different perspectives of two charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ growing up and how the role of the invisible hand of oppression guides developing adolescents into mature adults; without
Friday, May 15, 2020
For an organization to survive in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s environment it must find ways to remain competitive. Some organizations focus their energy on a marketing campaign to better a product, while others have realized their employees are its most important asset. While this notion does not clearly identify a right or wrong answer, it does highlight the new idea of an ethical work force. According to Business Ethics, Ã¢â¬Å"ethics is the set of principles a person uses to determine whether an action is good or badÃ¢â¬ (Collins, 2012). While some would argue the greatest achievement in longevity is a strong bottom line, others state by forging a strong correlation between ethical behavior and work habits, employees are less likely to participate in workplace misconduct. This essay identifies the direct correlation with longevity and an ethical work force. So does ethical behavior matter in the work place? There are six items in chapter one and four of Business Ethics that identify ethical behavior and its importance in the work place. Such topics include: human nature, unethical behavior, ethical behavior and its competitive edge, code of ethics vs. code of conduct, creating a code of ethics, and connecting the code of ethics to strategic planning. Scholars have pondered the notion of human nature for centuries trying to find a single phrase. Unfortunately this has produced four ideas instead of one. According to Business Ethics, Ã¢â¬Å"human nature can be categorized into four areas: infants areShow MoreRelatedEst1 Task21159 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesconstrued as harmful to the company or its employees or (B) cause negative public reactions that could impact Company X customers or customer relations in adverse ways. You are a Company X representative during work hours and during off work hours. Violations of Company X rules of acceptable behavior will be viewed as misconduct, which upon review can constitute immediate suspension. Pending further review and investigation some violations may result in termination. The following section is not an all-Read MoreA Paper on Ethics1255 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEthics Introduction There are a variety of different ethical systems that have developed of the course of millennia. However, even though the subject has been covered so thoroughly, it is still heavily debated. The varieties of ethical systems that are in existence look at various ethical problems from different perspectives and can be applied differently in different circumstances. Because of the subjective aspects to applying ethics, they can be as much an art as they are a science. EthicsRead MoreThe Ethics Of Ethical Behavior1491 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Ethics can be described as the ideals and principles considered by individuals when determining acceptable behavior. Many individuals take into account socially established normalities and expectations when examining their own behavior. However, I find my ideals to be tied to Jean Paul SartreÃ¢â¬â¢s existential views which assert that ethical behavior should be rooted in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s personal rationÃ alizations and a personÃ¢â¬â¢s actions shoul d reflect free agency. Existentialism is a theory that stresses choiceRead MoreEthical Issues With Ethical Marketing Essay1333 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIssues with Ethical Marketing Ethical problems in marketing starts with conflicts and disagreements. Each party in the marketing transaction brings expectations of how the business relationship will exist and how the transaction should be conducted. Some ethical problems in marketing research arenÃ¢â¬â¢t always the invasion of privacy and stereotyping. Selective marketing is used to discourage the demand from undesirable markets or just by disenfranchising them altogether. Examples of unethical market isRead MoreBiography Of Bernie Ebbers, The Founder Of Worldcom Essay1502 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBernie Ebbers, the founder of WorldCom was highly ambitious and aggressive with an entrepreneurial nature. He demonstrated the transformational and charismatic leadership qualities that inspire people and cause them to be loyal followers. These people usually have singleness of purpose and are disciplined. Since most people have a desire to be led, Ebbers filled that need, coupled with the fact that he created tremendous wealth that many executives and employees benefited from. He was charming andRead MoreThe Ethical Practices Of Managers And Co Workers1400 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageshuge positive or negative affect it has on a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s success. It is evident that people are influenced by those around them; celebrities, politics, peers, and superiors are just a few examples to claim. The ethical practices of managers and co-workers are influential to the employees who work for and with them and should demonstrate the conduct which the company would like to be known for in the public eye because of the potential gains and competitive benefit of morally sound employees who are dedicatedRead MoreEthical Violations in the Field of Law Enforcement1396 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn this country we are seeing an increase in ethical violations in the field of law enforcement. I will go into detail about some of the main ethical issues we are seeing today and what can be done to prevent such acts from happeni ng. When one officer is being unethical it has a huge effect on how the public views law enforcement as a whole. Many officers go undetected for a long time before getting caught, but an officer committing ethical violations will have their day itÃ¢â¬â¢s just a matter of timeRead MoreEthical Principles, Morals And Values Of A Company Or Organization Essay1612 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesimplemented to educate employees on the ethical principles, morals and values of a company or organization. Organizations such as the National Association for Social Workers (NASW), and the National Organization for Human Services (NOHS) have ethical codes in place for individuals working within the Human Services field. The American Psychological Association (APA) have ethical principles for psychologists. Furthermore, journalistÃ¢â¬â¢s and corporations have ethical codes they must follow, yet their codesRead MoreThe Dynamics of People and Organizations1655 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesChapter 1 The Dynamics of People and Organizations Organizational Behavior Organizational Behavior is the study and application of knowledge about how people Ã¢â¬â as individuals and as groups Ã¢â¬â act within organizations. Organizational Behavior is a scientific discipline in which a large number of research studies and conceptual developments are constantly adding to its knowledge base. Goals of Organizational Behavior (Most Sciences share four goals) * Describe (How people behave under a varietyRead MoreThe Ethics Of An Unethical Business Practice1370 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesorganizations such as nature conservationists and endangered species activists would feel inclined to take legal action. A public lawsuit would put the company in route to significant financial losses across the board, from boycotting clients, judge ordered reparations and ongoing sanctions that would change how their operations are implemented going forward. The results of an unethical business practice can only come forth if the head of the entity decides to turn a blind eye to what is happening
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Was the American civil war inevitable? The civil war was inevitable, only however, after one key event; the cotton gin made the civil war inevitable. The invention of the cotton gin in 1793 was the key element which enabled the south to have sufficient vested interest in their traditional lifestyle in order to feel the need to defend it at all costs even from their Northern countrymen. The core argument of this essay centres around the evidence which clearly defines their being in existence two Ãânations with in America constantly in opposition to each other. Therefore the growth of sectionalism and the events which led up to the conflict made war an inevitable outcome of the hostilities which had arisen from the to ideologicallyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Failure to compromise over the issue of protectionism was a primary factor in the growth of sectionalism which necessitated war. The underlying conflicts between North and South were finally fully exposed as a result of failure of compromise in the political arena. The failure of American leadership in 1846-1861was epitomised by key events such as; Douglass Kansas Nebraska act of 1854 and the dread Scott case pronouncement of 1857. Both of these events overturned the previous Missouri compromise and thus once again brought the two opposing nations head to head. The Wilmot proviso bill which proposed to eliminate slavery in the territories was a clear signal to the South that the North was plotting against her way of life. Thus the southern mind set became increasingly locked in a persecution complex which they justified by evidence of a ÃâNorthern conspiracy to destroy their economic institution, the Wilmot proviso was one such piece of evidence even though it was not passed. The election of Lincoln was the final straw with which the south believed the northern conspirators would gain the upper hand and bri ng about the destruction of the Southern institutions. Most irresponsible, wanton, and disastrous of all was the decision of those southern leaders who in 1858-1860 turned to the provocative demand for Congressional protection of slavery in all the territories of the Republic. Allan Nevins. Nevins in the previous quote demonstrates the reckless extentShow MoreRelatedWas The American Civil War An Inevitable?1390 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSabrina Scovino Was the American Civil War an inevitable consequence of the American Revolution? The American Revolution marked significant changes in the political, social, and economic status of the Americans. For a long, time the lives of the Americans were darkened by the British colonial rule. The British government passed several intolerable Acts. For instance, the Massachusetts Government Act was a restriction to town meetings. As a result, the American opponents began collective actionsRead MoreThe American Civil War Was Inevitable1975 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesitself cannot stand were the words of Abraham Lincoln in a republican convention on June 17,1858 in Illinois. The inevitable debate over slavery, popular sovereignty, the publishing of Uncle Toms Cabin, and Lincolns election would eventually have brothers versus brothers fighting each other in a bloody war. Religion, economics and the lost of power made the civil war an inevitable one. Popular sovereignty is the ideal that people could choose their laws such ideal Lewis Cass first broughtRead MoreThe American Civil War Was Inevitable Essay1641 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Civil War was inevitable in many reasons. The economic and industrial evolution was mainly in the North side of the United States while the South was just a cotton kingdom, Slave Empire. Also both were completely opposites of one another when it was about freeing the slaves or hiring more. With many debates there has to be sides that would be separated especially if the president has so much hate from the people. With that being said, since many want opposing ideas, the Civil War becomes muchRead MoreEssay on The American Civil War Was Inevitable1930 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThe Civil War: one of the most pivotal and significant moments in the history of the United States of America. The dividing of a newly birthed nation upon itself - the turmoil created threatened to collapse a unified yearning f or independence. A nation once united by the solace of solidarity, once tread on by the tyranny of a motherland, once triumphant in a fight for freedom, became segregated by principle. Power and greed fueled a dichotomy between color and people which repercussions lingeredRead MoreThe American Civil War Was Inevitable Essay1653 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Civil War between the North and South was the result of two cultures that economically, morally, and legally clashed on almost all levels. The steadily growing conflict between the two parts of the union makes it hard to pinpoint the origin or the cause of the resulting war. The conflict arose from a nation thats geographical areas had slowly grown apart in their ideals and also their source of income, which is often the cause of strife between battling regions. This rift driven between the twoRead MoreEssay about The American Civil War Was Inevitable1813 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesSouth is truly one of the most defining events in America n history. Through numerous events leading up to the start of the Civil War, I will attempt to show how the United States was destined for conflict and that the Civil War was inevitable. The first way I will show how the war could not be avoided will deal with the issue of slavery. Slavery should be the first mentioned because many conflicts within the United States leading up to the Civil War and the division of the United States dealt withRead MoreThe War Of The American Civil War960 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesslavery even if it meant war caused peace in this nation. Slavery was the vital cause of the American Civil War. The north and the south both had their differences on how to run the country. People in the North believed in unity and that slavery should not exist because Ã¢â¬Å"all men are created equally.Ã¢â¬ On the other hand, the South believed in continuing slavery. People tried to talk it out and come to a middle ground after both sides compromising, however that didnÃ¢â¬ â¢t work and caused war. Ideological differencesRead MoreSlavery as the Cause of the American Civil War Essay1733 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe American Civil War was the bloodiest military conflict in American history leaving over 500 thousand dead and over 300 thousand wounded (Roark 543-543). One might ask, what caused such internal tension within the most powerful nation in the world? During the nineteenth century, America was an infant nation, but toppling the entire world with its social, political, and economic innovations. In addition, immigrants were migrating from their native land to live the American dream (Roark 405-407)Read MoreThe Civil War Was Inevitable1399 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe American Civil War took place from April 12, 1861 to May 9, 1865. The simple answer is yes: the Civil War was completely inevitable, but there were many events, documents and people before its beginning that certainly had a large bearing on the war itself. The most divisive political issue in the United States in the mid-1800s was the expansion of slavery, and slavery is certainly the common denominator of the events leading up to the Civil War. People from the North were abolitionists, lookingRead MoreThe American Revolution And The Civil War1567 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages In the eyes of most, the American Revolution was a momentous event that shaped not only what would now be the America we know today but the whole world as well. However, this event had ramifications that affected the history of America for many years to come. In fact, many of those same ramifications led to what we know as the American Civil War. While it may be difficult to distinguish whether or not the Civil War was an inevitable consequence of the American Revolution due to lack of correlating
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Transformational Leadership and Relationship Quality. Answer: Introduction: There are two types of organisational goals such as official and operative. Official goals are set for establishing publishing image, brand awareness and organisational position in the market. Operative goals are set for the organisational goal setting, corporate steps for the achieving the financial liability and setting up objectives for the organisation. The leadership is the technique adopted for relaying organisational goals and objectives to a team or individual. In this management process, the leadership technique helps an individual or team for achieving their certain tasks allotted in the organisation. It could be done by using motivational speech, vision statement and unidirectional approach for the achieving a common goal (Goetsch and Davis, 2014, p.78). The organisation needs to relay the goals and objectives to the employees and teams for archiving financial objectives and organisational objectives. A clear and distinctive message delivery is needed for the clear understanding of the tasks and motivational approach of the organisational leader. Business communication plays an important role for communication in the organisation. There are many business communication modules such as web-based communication, video conferencing, reporting and presentation. Boardroom meeting and face to face meeting are the important business communication modules essential for communicating organisational goals to the different part of the hierarchy. A simple example for use of language and media is corporate events for internal stuff (Daly et al. 2015, p.323). Business communication is important for relaying organisational objectives to the employee for allotment and completing tasks in a clear and distinctive language for the help the achieve individual goals which are accumulated approach for achieving organisational goals. An organisation has a certain framework depending upon the objective and structure. Various business communication methods have been adopted for spreading information and directives depending upon the location and accessibility such as tale conferencing, video conferencing, board room meeting and face to face communication.A distinctive message delivery is needed for the success of the organisational goal (Watkins et al.2015, p.89). There are many instances when the certain business process is involved risks and need a proper preventive measure for avoiding mishap in the organisation. Apart from business process risks, there are many incidents could occur in the office environment which in turn could hamper the productivity and stability of the office environment. It is important to convey the result and magnitude of the incident as a preventive measure for eliminating risk factor of repetitive incidences in the office environment (Benn et al.2014, p98). Organisations have to look after the office environment stability for increasing productivity and for providing employee satisfaction. Letting stuff know about the incident will prevent from repeat the same in the workplace. Leaders act as role-models in the workplace where people can get motivated by watching them. There are two kinds of leaders, one who tells their people what to do other lead them by doing the job by getting their hand dirty. The second types of the leaders have immense power to influence their people by their work. A proper leadership can able to make an organisation flourish whereas a faulty leadership can destroy the reputation of an organisation (Cummings and Worley, 2014, p71). Workplace culture also influences the productivity of an organisation. Workplace culture can be of any form namely the modes of the working process, timescale, personality of the organisation, values, beliefs, traditions, interactions, behaviours, attitudes and the way each staff interact with each other. If there are any sorts of tension that prevail in the workplace, the work culture is affected and in turn, affects the productivity of employees working there. Change management in the workplace can influence the productivity of an organisation by influencing the workplace culture. Management also serves as the backbone of an organisation which not only supports the organisation but also coordinate between different departments. Along with the change in the management, many other important things such as leadership, mission, vision and core competencies of an organisation also change which can create confusion among the workforce. Workplace consultation and communication is a crucial factor which ensures the productivity by maintaining a proper flow of information. Either, it is the mission or vision statement or core competencies, each of the above-discussed matter demands to be broadcasted among the workforce to get the proper result (Aarons et al.2015, p.11). Those decisions are taken by the managing authority but are implemented into action by workforce; communication ensure the smooth transition of such idea into action Decision-making and risk management is another vital part that is handled by the managing authority of an organisation. The overall success of an organisation partly depends on this operation. The managing authorities firstly identify the hazards then they need to assess the level of risk associated with those hazards. Once the initial step is over, the concerned authority is also liable to analyse the control of such risks and make their decision after evaluating each option linked with the total process. Once the control is implemented their job is not over, they are also accountable to monitoring the effectiveness and do necessary amendment accordingly. Public relations are nothing but maintaining a relation with its public. It is also defined as conveying the organisational motto or policy over communication media. This public for an organisation can be further classified into two types, internal public or employee base and external public or target customer. An organisation needs to maintain a proper relationship with both types of the public. The company should win the loyalty, trust and confidence of the internal customer by providing them security and facilities. They are the person who works for the company and satisfies the needs of the target customer (Carter et al.2013, p.942). Business ethics is fair dealing with both of the internal as well as an external stakeholder of a specific organisation. Business ethics is important as it creates a sense of employee satisfaction which leads them to perform better and long to be a part of the organisation. This also makes an origination to perform their business in a sustainable way which is crucial the current point of time in the context of global environmental risk. These kinds of responsibility towards the environment help the organisation to attract their target customer. Leadership styles is a vital point which needs to be aligned with the types of the employees so as to the organisation can make a mark in the psyche of their target customer. Autocratic leadership is helpful in managing a large group of the unskilled employees while laissez-faire leadership is effective for managing the creative and sincere employee. Professional development ensures a continuous improvement for both the employee as well as the organisation. This is the era of competition; hence, in order to be in the front line, an organisation needs to promote the professional development of their employees so that they can get a competitive advantage over other rival company. Three trainers are appointed for the training program for 20 shift supervisor. A 20-hour training program has been designed for achievement for the training purpose. Three trainers of Foodstuff need to train them for the different operational tasks and organisational goals for the serving purpose of the recruitment (Carter et al.2013, p.942). Proper training of the operational tools and their use will help the trainee to understand the organisational objective and operational procedure and functionality of Foodstuff. Trainers need to schedule the training sessions and selecting training modules for each session for successful completion of the training program with the due date. The resources needed for the training program in Foodstuff understand the budget requirement, a proper budget plan, team allocation, scheduling, accumulating tools and techniques for the achievements of the goal for completing the training schedule within the due time. They need to understand the organisational requirement and dividing tasks for achieving the requirement.Budget scheduling according to the training session and resource allocation is the important part of the training schedule. Organisational resources such as business management tools, communication tools and budget are needed for the successful completion of the training within the 20-hour training session. Foodstuff needs to design a support for the training session for successful completion of the training of the 20 shift supervisor. Foodstuff needs to provide an adequate budget for the training to a trainer for the smooth functioning of the session and on time completion of the training (Aarons et al.2015, p.11). A detailed technological support is also needed for the understanding of the techniques used in the organisation such as business communication tools and organisational management tools which are basic equipment for the functionality of the organisation. Risk management tools are needed to incorporate for the ensuring the training personals and trainee security during the technical training period. The predominant effort for establishing positive workplace environment is to develop a sense of equality among all the employees. A transparent attitude and organisational framework could induce a positive environment. Positive motivational approach induces a creative environment in the workspace. The different motivational approach also needed for achieving tasks allotted to the stuff under a managerial head. As a whole, transparency, equality and motivation could establish a proper positive work environment (Cummings and Worley, 2014, p.78). Reference List: Aarons, G.A., Ehrhart, M.G., Farahnak, L.R. and Hurlburt, M.S., 2015. Leadership and organizational change for implementation (LOCI): a randomized mixed method pilot study of a leadership and organization development intervention for evidence-based practice implementation.Implementation Science,10(1), p.11. Benn, S., Dunphy, D. and Griffiths, A., 2014.Organizational change for corporate sustainability. Routledge. Carter, M.Z., Armenakis, A.A., Feild, H.S. and Mossholder, K.W., 2013. Transformational leadership, relationship quality, and employee performance during continuous incremental organizational change.Journal of Organizational Behavior,34(7), pp.942-958. Cummings, T.G. and Worley, C.G., 2014. Organization development and change. Cengage learning. Daly, M., Egan, M. and O'Reilly, F., 2015. Childhood general cognitive ability predicts leadership role occupancy across life: Evidence from 17,000 cohort study participants. The Leadership Quarterly, 26(3), pp.323-341. Goetsch, D.L. and Davis, S.B., 2014. Quality management for organizational excellence. Upper Saddle River, NJ: pearson. Watkins, M.D., Christensen, C. and Kraemer, K.L., 2015. Harvard Business Review Leadership Library: The Executive Collection (12 Books). Harvard Business Review Press.