Thursday, December 19, 2019

Narrative Form Of Parenting Group Essay - 3248 Words

Narrative Form Parenting group started two weeks ago, with ten members. The parenting group is taking place in a classroom. When the members arrived to the classroom the counselor had arranged the chairs in a circle in the middle of the classroom. When the members arrive they took a seat and waited for the rest of the members. Members that are part of the parenting group are Dee, Oziel, Nela, Kathy, Roger, Ozzy, Felix, Susi, Vicente and Miriam. Two of the members are couples that are having a hard time with a parenting style because they come from different culture and they have different beliefs and values. The rest of the members are either single parents or married parents. The first session of parenting group, the counselor opens the first meeting by first introducing herself and going over confidential information with the group. The counselor then covers some topic that will be covered during the parenting group. After the counselor went around the group and ask members to introduce themselves by saying their first name, how many children they have? And what are their hobbies as a family? Dee was first to introduce herself, she has one daughter and her hobbies with her family is going out on the weekends to take her daughter to ballet class then go out as a family to the movies or for a walk. Oziel has one son; his hobby with his family is going out to different park themes. Nela has two sons and her hobbies with her family is taking the boys to play soccerShow MoreRelatedThe Controversy Surrounding Same Sex Parenting1255 Words   |  6 Pagessexual orientation has a negative impact on child development, while proponents argue that the relationsh ip between the child and parents is what matters. National, state, and local governments are faced with the controversy surrounding same-sex parenting. People have very strong opinions on both sides of the argument. Children and adolescents who are under lesbian or gay parents have normal child development compared with children under heterosexual parents. These children develop normally sociallyRead MoreThe Theories Of Piaget And Erikson1121 Words   |  5 PagesAt first glance, the setup of my narratives may appear complicated because my teaching, scholarship, and service all inform one another. As a result, I chose to write my narratives as one continuous story that can be read together, but can also stand alone. In regards to my teaching, I subscribe to the principles of educational constructivists. As a constructivist teacher, I believe learning is a co-constructed between teacher and students. As a result of this, I try to strike a balance betweenRead MoreParental Involve ment in the Youth Criminal Justice System in Western Canada969 Words   |  4 Pagesupper middle class, with sons, involved in the Juvenile Criminal Justice System. 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This use of animals instead of humans as characters helps me continue to enjoy the reading of the story as the plot is extremely dark and would otherwiseRead MoreThe Reality Of The Lgbtq Community1404 Words   |  6 Pagesestablishes, is that despite the greater visibility of lesbian parents and a growing social demographic, these representations reproduce the cultural, social, and political institutional power, and sustain oppression the of lesbians and other social groups too far outside the bounds of ‘normal.’ H2: Homonormative Discourse Homonormative discourses take shape in sustaining heteronormativity. Heteronormativity constructs heterosexual assumptions of gender and sex as an ideal and moral imperative, cooperatingRead MoreEvidence Based Research : Trauma Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy1207 Words   |  5 Pagesinfluences and allows the child to develop effective coping skills. Trauma Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy TF-CBT is a psychosocial treatment identified as appropriate for children three to 18 years old. These children have experienced various forms of trauma. The objective of TF-CBT is to mitigate symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder or other life trauma with the child and their primary caregiver. This therapy uses trauma sensitive interventions with cognitive behavior therapy. The treatmentRead MoreWomen s Influence On Gender Roles1427 Words   |  6 Pagesbirth to Tyrion. Why she dies? To create a compelling reason for Tywin to hate his son. This lack of detailed, comprehensive female narratives and strong female characters is dangerous-- it takes away vital representation that has the ability to give women a stronger sense of self and affirmation of identity. Proper representation in books, movies, and other forms of media allow those not properly represented to bolster their own expectations of their abilities, allowing assumptions that are oftenRead MoreSelf Efficacy Of Japanese Women1585 Words   |  7 Pagesavailability of support for child-rearing, have had a profound effect on the country s fertility. In her book, Women and Family in Contemporary Japan, Holloway explores the social and cultural norms that shapes the gender structure of marriage and parenting in Japan. In interviews with Japanese mothers, Holloway asks what it is like to be a wife and to raise children in a country where caretaking has long been considered solely women s work. Through my readings of other scholars in Japanese studiesRead MoreEssay on Child Sexual Abuse and Resiliency1020 Words   |  5 Pagesand will prevail. Upon completion of the research, it was appalling to find additional side effects of childhood sexual abuse in the form of anxiety, depression, the feeling that they could have prevented the abuse, and thoughts of suicide. Further effects include sexual anxiety and disorders, including too many sexual partners, prostitution, and poor parenting skills later in life. Children may have a difficult time setting safe limits with others (e.g. saying no to people) and relationship problemsRead MoreAnalysis Of Jacquelyn Mitchard The Deep End Of The Sea 1039 Words   |  5 Pagesgone one unfaithful day. Beth struggles to survive with this loss until one day, seven years later, she finds him. The novel follows the Cappadora’s as they cope with a new addition to their lives that presents twists, tragedies, and heartbreaks. Narratives play an essential role in understanding the subject of mental illness by recognizing that traumatic events, dysfunctional families, and the introduction to an unaccustomed environment are routine occurrences that instigate this condition. Trauma

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Music out of Africa Essay Example For Students

Music out of Africa Essay A major misconception of the oral tradition is that it consists of and continues through words or (for the purpose of this essay) lyrics only. This misconception is defied every time a musician plays a note on his instrument. Along with words, vocalized tone and rhythm play an important role in the oral tradition. These two elements are just as important in oral communication as words because it allows for communication of a nonverbal nature, even subconsciously at times, in all languages. Bornman insists that while the whole European tradition strives for regularity of pitch, of time, of timbre, and of vibrato the African tradition strives precisely for the negation of these elements. Traditionally African languages did not restrict a single word to having one particular definition; rather one had the freedom to speak freely using words at their own discretion with their own unique meanings in mind. Along with words came how the words were spoken. This was in fact the intention of the true oral tradition, made up of a persons unique response to anothers oral statement. Ben Sidran explains: all oral communication is a direct reflection of the immediate environment and of the way in which members of the oral community relate to that environment. We now can draw the comparison to music with Bornmans assertion that In music, the same tendency toward obliquity and ellipsis is noticeable: no note is attacked straight; the voice or instrument always approaches it from above or below.8 In large part, the complexity of this rhythmic approach is due to the value placed on spontaneity and the instinctively communal nature of oral improvisation. This talent is a role of the larger oral approach toward time and the consequent emotional connection with events as they happen. By failing to label emotional content along the rigid lines of verbal definition, a result of the stress on vocalization, musicians have aided the survival of the oral tradition. They are able to do this effectively because they celebrate the feeling of any given moment as a unique experience, rather than as a part of some pre-written text book. By separating every moment or significant experience they are able to improvise and create their own unique tune. The ability to experience and communicate emotional content on such a broad level is characteristic of the oral mans failure to detach intellectually: to not categorize, specialize, or analyze. Ultimately, this is a necessity in the survival of the oral tradition. In some ways it has become much more a manner of presentation than a way of experiencing. Abandoning strict rules of tonality came naturally to, internationally renowned South African pianist, Abdullah Ibrahim. He says in an interview before his 1996 concert celebrating Mandelas inauguration, Ever since I was a kid I was playing in that direction And then it just got to a point in New York in the late 60s with the avant-garde. What happened was that we just got to a state of such technical proficiency that we could execute anything. Practically, though, it got to the point that we couldnt eat. Really, nobody wanted to listen. From a technical perspective it was quite complex, and then I realized you can use very eloquent language to say something, but if people dont understand what the hell your talking about Using basic language you can get the same kind of message but as for me it was not just a conscious decision to move away from it, it was natural.9 What comes next is perhaps the crucial element in Ibrahims musical odyssey toward tonality, perhaps in his political and spiritual one as well. I think maybe because of the involvement in the struggle in South Africa, in some ways we were just forced to deal with what people saw as normal, basic issues, you know. We had to deal with people, and so the music has to relate to people. And for us it was a blessing in disguise because that is how the music always related anyway, traditionally. For all the Western influence in Ibrahims music, from Debussy to Duke Ellington, his music is distinctly African. .u732d6b8ced0808a36f6694df6890c0c8 , .u732d6b8ced0808a36f6694df6890c0c8 .postImageUrl , .u732d6b8ced0808a36f6694df6890c0c8 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u732d6b8ced0808a36f6694df6890c0c8 , .u732d6b8ced0808a36f6694df6890c0c8:hover , .u732d6b8ced0808a36f6694df6890c0c8:visited , .u732d6b8ced0808a36f6694df6890c0c8:active { border:0!important; } .u732d6b8ced0808a36f6694df6890c0c8 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u732d6b8ced0808a36f6694df6890c0c8 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u732d6b8ced0808a36f6694df6890c0c8:active , .u732d6b8ced0808a36f6694df6890c0c8:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u732d6b8ced0808a36f6694df6890c0c8 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u732d6b8ced0808a36f6694df6890c0c8 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u732d6b8ced0808a36f6694df6890c0c8 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u732d6b8ced0808a36f6694df6890c0c8 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u732d6b8ced0808a36f6694df6890c0c8:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u732d6b8ced0808a36f6694df6890c0c8 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u732d6b8ced0808a36f6694df6890c0c8 .u732d6b8ced0808a36f6694df6890c0c8-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u732d6b8ced0808a36f6694df6890c0c8:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Jazz and the Brightside Tavern EssayDuke said it when he met us: You are blessed because you come from the source. The challenge that we faced was that if youre a jazz musician you have points of reference if youre an aspiring musician. If youre a saxophone player you listen to Charlie Parker and John Coltrane. But with our traditional music there is no point of reference. There was no piano player for us. We had to deal with creating a contemporary mind-set in terms of improvisation with a traditional music of our own. Thats what gives Ibrahim such a distinct sound. Viewing the film A Brother with Perfect Timing, I questioned Ibrahims assertion that today musicians are seen as entertainers, but rather they are healers who use their music as spiritual medication. Traditionally healers performed their duties either through the gift of speech or using plants directly. Through my experience with music, I now know what a profound affect a single song can have on a persons day or life. Musicians are healers of a different breed and although still esoteric in nature, many people can and are healed everyday. In the Bafour tradition, a healer who wants to deepen his knowledge has to travel extensively in order to learn about the different methods and study with other masters of the subject. Musicians follow the same practice in mastering their craft. The African of the savannah used to travel a great deal. The result was exchange and circulation of knowledge. This is why the collective historical memory of Africa is seldom limited to one territory. Instead it is connected by family ties or ethnic groups that have migrated across the continent. This explains why the traditional healer I speak of originates from the region of Mali while Ibrahim, who views himself as a healer in the same sense, is from South Africa. Listening to Ibrahim speak of one of his mentors, Thelonius Monk, we get a glimpse of his tremendous admiration and respect for this man. He tells us that one day he happened to be thinking about Monk and decided to write a song in his honor entitled, For Monk. We can see on his face the excitement that came with composing such a work. He even asked his band to play the newly developed and not quite finished song at their concert a few days later. Ibrahim was compiling this incredible tribute to a man that had inspired him in so many ways not knowing that the day after he had written the song, Monk had been admitted to the hospital. For Monk had been written in honor of this legend and inspiration but now served as an inspiring piece for that same legend to fight through his illness. The song transpired more in the spirit of the training of a Bambara apprentice smith, than in the creation of a conservatory product. I think the great Charlie Parker said it best: Music is your own experience, your thoughts, your wisdom. If you dont live it, it wont come out of your horn. As in imperial Mali, the musicians song is a call to arms. Just as the griots of Sundjata energized the enthusiasm of the warriors of Mandà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½, the musician of today must mobilize his audience for the collective tasks of nation-building. By singing the glories of the past, making it immediate and alive for his audience, the musician stimulates a remembrance of them; by urging sacrifice today for a greater tomorrow, he provides the expectation of a common future. Ibrahim explains to us at the end of his film that the words of Water from an Ancient Well not only represent the drought in Africa, the famine and the turmoil, but it is asking for the water of wisdom so that we can face the future. He smiles and gently utters Very soon Africa will be green and blooming again. .u6eb5f6751a2005b8e2c64b7f719de45c , .u6eb5f6751a2005b8e2c64b7f719de45c .postImageUrl , .u6eb5f6751a2005b8e2c64b7f719de45c .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u6eb5f6751a2005b8e2c64b7f719de45c , .u6eb5f6751a2005b8e2c64b7f719de45c:hover , .u6eb5f6751a2005b8e2c64b7f719de45c:visited , .u6eb5f6751a2005b8e2c64b7f719de45c:active { border:0!important; } .u6eb5f6751a2005b8e2c64b7f719de45c .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u6eb5f6751a2005b8e2c64b7f719de45c { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u6eb5f6751a2005b8e2c64b7f719de45c:active , .u6eb5f6751a2005b8e2c64b7f719de45c:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u6eb5f6751a2005b8e2c64b7f719de45c .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u6eb5f6751a2005b8e2c64b7f719de45c .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u6eb5f6751a2005b8e2c64b7f719de45c .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u6eb5f6751a2005b8e2c64b7f719de45c .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u6eb5f6751a2005b8e2c64b7f719de45c:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u6eb5f6751a2005b8e2c64b7f719de45c .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u6eb5f6751a2005b8e2c64b7f719de45c .u6eb5f6751a2005b8e2c64b7f719de45c-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u6eb5f6751a2005b8e2c64b7f719de45c:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: History of Music Education: Greek, Roman and Egyptian EssaySELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY B, Hampat, Vol. I, The Living Tradition, General History of Africa/ UNESCO, 1981 Conrad, David C. Barbara E. Frank, Status and Identity in West Afric: Nyamakalaw of Mande, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1995 Hentoff, Nat Albert McCarthy, eds., Jazz. New York: Rinehart, 1959 Knight, Roderic C., Vol. 30, No. 3 Music out of Africa: Mande Jaliya in Paris, The World of Music, 1991 Miller, Joseph C., The African past speaks: essays on oral tradition and history, Folkstone, England: Dawson/Archon, 1980 Niane, D. T., Sundiata: An epic of Old Mali, Essex, England: Longman, 1965

Tuesday, December 3, 2019


RELEVANCY OF THE MODERNIZATION THEORY IN ACHIEVING DEVELOPMENT IN THE LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES LIKE TANZANIA Essay Example Paper RELEVANCY OF THE MODERNIZATION THEORY IN ACHIEVING DEVELOPMENT IN THE LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES LIKE TANZANIA Essay Introduction RELEVANCY OF THE MODERNIZATION THEORY IN ACHIEVING DEVELOPMENT IN THE LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES LIKE TANZANIA By smzungu THE APPLICABILITY OF THE MODERNIZATION THEORY IN ACHIEVING DEVELOPMENT IN THE LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES LIKE TANZANIA The term development is very broad and it has therefore brought many scholars in defining it. in economic view, Development can therefore be defined as the increase of level of economic development of a nation. This is looked upon by the economic indicators, for instance; income per capita, gross national product gross domestic product and the inflationary rates. So once these increase in a given country, it is said to have undergone economic development. However, this definition was further criticized by other scholars postulating that the perception on the income per capita is too general due to the fact that there are low class earners and high class earners in a given economy and all the economic indicators may be present but still no economic g rowth. Other scholars therefore came up other definitions on development. For instance, Walter Rodney who claimed that development can be defined on two ways; development in individual view of which he postulated that evelopment in an individual is the increased skill, capacity, greater freedom, creativity, self-discipline, responsibility and material well-being and a society that is developed is said to have increased capacity to regulate both internal and external relationships. Development can therefore be defined as an economy which has grown and has trickle down effect. RELEVANCY OF THE MODERNIZATION THEORY IN ACHIEVING DEVELOPMENT IN THE LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES LIKE TANZANIA Essay Body Paragraphs That is to say a developed economy should have impact to the people. The modernization theory was developed in 1960. It comes from the capitalist point of view of development and it relates development with modernization. The theory states that a modern society is likely to archive economic development compared to a non-modernized society. A modern society is more productive due to the fact that children receive formal education, there is time consciousness and the needy receive more welfare. This is according to Smelter’s analysis. However, Coleman goes on saying that a modern society can be differentiated from a non-modernized society using three main features which are: differentiation of the political structure where the political components such as the executive, Judiciary and the parliament are independent and the decisions made annot be altered with by either of them. Secondly, secularization of political culture which refers to the freedom given to all the political pa rties and leaders to practice their political traditions and culture and finally there is the participation of the society in political systems. The theory further argues that development is a linear process and any society must go through some stages for it to develop. This is further supported by an American economist called Walt Whitman Rostow. Rostow was one 1960 which was like a modification of what Karl max did. He argues that in order for a ociety to undergo economic development, it has to undergo through five linear stages which are traditional society stage, pre-condition to take-off, take off stage, drive to maturity and mass consumption. it is therefore from these stages, we can conclude that a developed society is at the fifth stage of mass consumption. Rostow goes on saying that each stage has characteristics which a society in that stage is likely to undergo; For instance, the traditional society stage is the initial stage of development and every society underwent thr ough this stage. It is generally characterized by low production due to poor technology. Agriculture is in existence but it is mainly subsistence, there are no classes since there is low population and people live in families. The economy in this stage is stagnant and there is no individual mobility. Pre-condition to take off is the second stage and Rostow has shown the characteristics of a society that is in this stage. He argued that external demands for raw materials for raw materials initiate changes, the technology begins to improve, the level of investment also increases, there is change in the social structure and individual mobility comes into existence. A society that is in this stage, has fulfilled the conditions to take off to the other stages. The take offstage is the third stage and is characterized by: manufacturing begins to rationalize and scale increases in a few leading industries as goods are for both export and domestic consumption. The production of secondary go ods also increases than the production of primary goods, industries like the textile industries are the first to take off. Moreover, a society in the drive to maturity stage is characterized by the diversification of the industrial base, manufacturing shifts from investment driven owards consumer durable goods and domestic consumption, there is also rapid development of transport infrastructure and large scale investment in social infrastructure example schools and hospitals. Finally, the fifth stage is the mass consumption stage and is characterized by the industrial sector dominating the economy, there is a wide spread consumption of consumer goods and the consumers have more disposable income to purchase luxurious goods. The modernization theory is relevant and is therefore applicable in archiving development in the least developed countries like Tanzania. The underdeveloped countries should make efforts to adopt the characteristics mentioned in each stage by Walt Whitman Rostow to archive development thus the theory is applicable in the following ways: Diversification of the economy. This means that it’s not only one sector that is being depended in the economy but also other sectors. Tanzania depends on agriculture thus it is the one that dominates the economy. The industrial sector is still at a small scale comprised of small and medium industries most of them producing consumer goods. The agricultural sector being the core economic base of the country still, it is ot well mechanized due to the fact that most people still practice it for subsistence and the ones who practice for commercial purposes are faced by problems of lack of storage facilities, poor climatic conditions for instance most of the regions in Tanzania receive mean annual rainfall of about 800mm and it is not evenly distributed in the country. This makes the agricultural activities to be practiced seasonally hence there is no adequate supply. Tanzania therefore should not only the industrial sector, mining sector, tourism sectors and many others which can be of reat economic benefit to the country. Investment in the social infrastructure. Rostow claims that a society in the drive to maturity stage does much investment in the social infrastructure in there is adequate availability of health facilities, schools and so many others. Furthermore, Coleman stresses much on this by saying that a modern society is likely to achieve development due to the fact that there is the availability of formal education and the society receives more welfare. There to be modernized must therefore do much investment in the creation and distribution on the formal education. For instance the teacher to student ratio in the country is 49:1 of which it’s still very inappropriate to distribute education effectively. In addition, the number of health facilities in the whole country totaled up to 6321 which obviously the number is too small to cater for the very big population of the country, this shows how poor the country is in the distribution of the social welfare to its people. The improvement of the social infrastructure in Tanzania will therefore lead to a more educated and healthy population which would be much effective in the economic development of Tanzania. Development of economic infrastructure is another feature among the stages of economic development as mentioned by Rostow which Tanzania should also try to adopt so as to archive economic development. Economic development is much contributed for by a much developed transport system since it enhances the provision of goods and services as well as the raw materials needed in the manufacturing industries. The road transport system in the country is not much developed since it is not evenly distributed in the country and most of the roads do not reach the international standards. The airports are available but not with adequate planes to transport a variety of cargo to different parts of the worl d. This problem has contributed to a slow development of industries in the country as well as less exportation to other countries thus making the country to import more hence making the trade terms unbalanced. Therefore, Tanzania must improve its transport infrastructure so as to enable it be among the developed countries in the world. Smelters analysis entails that a developed country is characterized by the secularization of the political system in which the politicians and their respective arties are allowed to practice their political traditions and cultures. Evidently, this is common in most European countries. Tanzania is a multiparty country but the dominant party is the CCM which has been in leadership for so many decades now. Mostly there has been controversies and every party has its own thing to say and these differences have far much contributed ineffective working of the political leaders because they have to work as per the traditions of the political party in reign th is limits the decision making of the leaders of which some could be of much importance to the economic development in the country. Tanzania should therefore practice secularization of its political system so as to reach Rostows highest stage of development. Finally, increase in the level of investment especially in the production of capital goods than the consumer goods. as per the statistics in from the Tanzania Bureau of Statistics, the countrys largest exports are coffee , cotton, sisal, cashew nuts, cloves, diamonds, gold, tobacco and tea. The country imports large quantities building and construction materials, machinery and transport equipment. It is from goods which are very much costly. Rostow argues that in the third and fourth stage of evelopment, the society invests much in industries and the level of industrial growth increases. Therefore, for Tanzania to improve its economy must invest on the import substitution industries which would deal in the production of the capit al goods instead of importing them thus saving costs which can later be used to upgrade the living standards of the people in the country. In conclusion, the modernization theory as we have seen is relevant in describing development In different economic societies, the characteristics mentioned in each stage by Rostow, when they are implied, a country will definitely undergo economic development since ach one of them is designed to tackle issues which hinder development in many countries in the world. Most of the developing countries face problems like dis economies of scale, imbalanced terms of trade and so many others of which the solutions towards them are clearly explained in the modernization theory; this shows its applicability in the achievement of development in the least developed countries like -ranzanta. REFERENCES: 1. Walter Rodney. How Europe Undeveloped Africa Tanzania Bureau of Statistics. (Google. com) 2. World Bank Annual Report. (Google. com) 3. UNICEF Tanzania (Go ogle. com) 4. We will write a custom essay sample on RELEVANCY OF THE MODERNIZATION THEORY IN ACHIEVING DEVELOPMENT IN THE LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES LIKE TANZANIA Essay Example specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on RELEVANCY OF THE MODERNIZATION THEORY IN ACHIEVING DEVELOPMENT IN THE LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES LIKE TANZANIA Essay Example specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on RELEVANCY OF THE MODERNIZATION THEORY IN ACHIEVING DEVELOPMENT IN THE LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES LIKE TANZANIA Essay Example specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Water Problems free essay sample

Resources once considered renewable are diminishing rapidly. Water is one element which, is declining in the face of human onslaught. Indias historic billionth baby has not led the government to take concrete measures to control this rapid population growth. Jabalpur is located in the heart of Madhya Pradesh and lies 15 kilometres from river Narmada. Its present population is 2 million. Two decades back it was 700,000. Increasing population is making summers seem like a nightmare. Though, in some areas of the city water supply is irregular throughout the year. Water shortage leads to long queues and street squabbles with peoples patience running out. Once known as the city of lakes, the water bodies have today lost their lust. Built by our forefathers for serving daily needs and for recharging groundwater the lakes are dying. Concrete buildings and waste material have taken the place of the shrinking water bodies. Sports and business complexes are being planned in place of the retreating water bodies, without a passing thought to the consequences on environment. We will write a custom essay sample on Water Problems or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Scarcity of water has led to the digging of tubewells in every plot of the newly- onstructed colonies. This has further aggravated the problem with the fall of the watertable. The lakes need to be cleaned and desilted regularly. If a fraction of funds collected during festive occasions, are diverted for maintaining these waterbodies by local committees then the wells of that locality could get recharged. Narmada, rain and groundwater are the three major sources of water for Jabalpur. The water flow in Narmada is because of rains in the upper reaches of Jabalpur. This rainwater if tapped, by every household can end the water crisis. If people build large underground water storage tanks, to harvest rainwater it could also recharge groundwater. If someone using groundwater does not recharge it, he must be made liable to be punished by the municipality or water board. Other than the Narmada the other water supplied is from by two reservoirs. Earlier most of the rain that fell recharged groundwater aquifers because of dense green cover which, acted as a barrier for surface runoff. Now, with 70 per cent of the forest cover in Khandari and 30 per cent of forest cover in Pariyat catchment removed the vailable reservoirs are getting silted up. Unfortunately, there is no official policy to respond to the crisis. Water management demands sincere planning and coordinated efforts. There is a need for formation of separate water bodies independent of government interference, manned by professionals appointed for a contractual basis and paid according to work efficiency. A ban on tubewells can make a vital difference to groundwater recharge. Licenses need to be made compulsory for every well digger. The imposition of high

Sunday, November 24, 2019

ALM Unlimited and the Trump Organization. Business Conflict

ALM Unlimited and the Trump Organization. Business Conflict Introduction Business conflicts are inevitable. Conflicts may range from small disagreements to big and costly disagreements. Sometimes, if left unattended, minor conflicts may easily become major conflicts, thereby creating devastating consequences for the parties involved.Advertising We will write a custom article sample on ALM Unlimited and the Trump Organization. Business Conflict specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Businesses may suffer reputational damage, time and resource wastage, and the loss of future investment opportunities (among other ramifications) from business conflicts (Davis, 2012). To avoid these consequences, many businesses prefer to avoid conflict altogether, as opposed to solving them. However, some businesses are unsuccessful in doing so. The Trump Organization is one such entity that has failed to avoid conflict in the last decade. This article delves into the intrigues of a recently concluded dispute between th e organization and New York-based licensing firm, ALM Unlimited. This paper explains the details of the conflict, including the cost of the conflict, the resolution of the conflict, and the undertones of the disagreement. The Case Informed of its role in helping the flamboyant real estate developer, Donald Trump, to secure a lucrative clothing contract with Phillips-Van Heusen (PVH) Company, ALM Unlimited named the Trump Organization in a lawsuit for unlawful termination of remittances to its organization (Clarke, 2013). In its defense, the Trump Organization claimed it had wrongfully remitted payments to ALM Unlimited. The company also said its payment to ALM Unlimited was supposed to be a one-off payment (McCoy, 2011). Moreover, according to Donald Trump, ALM Unlimited played a minimal role in helping the Trump Organization to secure the multimillion-dollar contract with PVH. In his submissions at a New York court, Donald Trump revealed that his company had received above $3,000,0 00 in royalties from the contentious deal (Clarke, 2013).Advertising Looking for article on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Cost of the Conflict The cost of conflict is the amount of money a party aims to gain or lose from a business conflict. However, Davis (2012) says that when businesses are in conflict, the cost of the conflict often transcends the amount of money quoted in lawsuits, or the fees paid out to the lawyers. Instead, he says, â€Å"The financial and emotional effects, wasted time, and lost productivity of businesses and individuals contribute to the overall costs of conflict† (Davis, 2012, p. 32). An overexposure of conflict may further lead to more damages, especially when the warring parties have to do business with other companies. Observers have said that the conflict between the Trump Organization and ALM Unlimited transcends the cost of litigation (McCoy, 2011). They argue that the Trump Organization largely bases its success from the strength of the â€Å"Trump† brand. Therefore, an overexposure of the brand to business conflict paints a bad picture for the company because it hurts the business. McCoy (2011) affirms this fact when he says overexposure is bad for business because other organizations will be hesitant to do business with a defamed brand. Despite the merit of these arguments, this paper acknowledges the importance of understanding conflict on a case-by-case basis. Stated differently, the business conflict between the Trump Organization and ALM Unlimited presents unique dynamics that inform its cost of conflict. Concisely, based on the arguments advanced by the Trump Organization and ALM Unlimited, the amount of contention was about $75,000 annually. This is the cost of the conflict. This figure comes from the amount of money paid by the Trump organization to ALM Unlimited (since the two parties started business). In detail, since the Trump organization entered into the clothing business with Phillips-Van Heusen, it has paid about $350,000 to ALM. The organization made these payments between 2004 and 2008 when it stopped the payments (this has been a four-year stretch).Advertising We will write a custom article sample on ALM Unlimited and the Trump Organization. Business Conflict specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Based on calculations of the amount received by ALM international over the four-year stretch, the company wanted periodical payments of $75,000 annually. Resolution of Conflict Businesses choose to resolve conflicts in different ways. Some choose to resolve conflicts through personal agreements (business-to-business agreements); others choose to identify an arbitrator to mediate the conflict, while many businesses seek a legal solution to conflict resolution. The conflict between the Trump Organization and ALM Unlimited ended through a legal solu tion. A Supreme Court judge, based in New York, ruled that the Trump Organization had no case to answer in the above-mentioned business conflict (Clarke, 2013). The judge sidestepped a sitting jury, which heard the case for close to a week, by issuing a direct order that dismissed the case because of lack of sufficient evidence to show that the two organizations had a binding contract. This ruling ended the four-year conflict. Conclusion It is often difficult to predict the ramifications of business conflicts, or their end. However, for ALM Unlimited and the Trump Organization, their conflict was resolved through legal means, without any serious ramifications for any of the parties. The resolution of conflict through the courts should however be regarded as a last resort for doing so because less expensive and expeditious methods exist for solving such conflicts (outside courts). Arbitration is one example of an inexpensive and expeditious process for solving business conflicts. Non etheless, regardless of the nature or magnitude of business conflicts, they should be resolved expeditiously because delaying the conflict resolution process only worsens the outcome. References Clarke, K. (2013). The Donald Triumphs at Trial over Clothing Royalties. Web. Davis, P. (2012). A model for strategy implementation and conflict resolution in the franchise business. Strategy Leadership, 40(5), 32 – 38.Advertising Looking for article on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More McCoy, K. (2011). Donald Trump Faces Lawsuits over Business Deals. Web.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 246

Assignment Example This has seen to the decline of this practice. By providing the benefits of hanging clothes outside, the author tries to convince people to hang clothes in the sun. In fact, the author goes on to give the economic benefits of clothesline compared to dryers. In the article, the main issue is the decline of clotheslines. Although dryers and washers have contributed to this decline, some house provisions forbid residents from using clothesline (Dewolf, 2007). The established rhetorical mode in the article is comparison and contrast. In the second paragraph, â€Å"...where I discovered that St John’s was precisely the opposite of Calgary.† The author contrasts the use of the clothesline in Montreal and St John’s, and the use of dryers and washers in Calgary. Similarly, in the third paragraph, â€Å"Montreal is similar to St John’s,† this is central to residents in both places using clotheslines. On the same, the author gives possible reasons as to why the clotheslines still feature in St John’s and Montreal (Dewolf,

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Casino gambling in Kentucky Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Casino gambling in Kentucky - Term Paper Example In this context, the legislation matter has been the campaign proposal of Governor Steve Basher in his bid for election. Associated Press (2007) stated that the proposal of the Governor to legalize casinos in Kentucky is based on the assumption that it will bring growth to the economy in terms of revenues and taxes. The proposal has been submitted for a legislative process of approval and will also be presented to the Kentucky General Assembly for consent. The proposed bill if passed, allows 9 to 12 casinos in Kentucky, and is expected to bring estimated revenue of $600 million a year in tax revenue. In this critical issue, the Kentucky General Assembly composed of the people of Kentucky have been given the chance to have their voices heard in a direct poll whether they agree with this move or not. The recent events shown in the news carried by WBKO (2010) reported that the legalization of casinos in Kentucky did not pass the legislative session. There are possible reasons for the rejection of the proposal as there are studies that show disadvantages for having Casinos in Kentucky. The probe studies of Anderson and Nevada Council on Problem Gambling show that the proliferation of problem gamblers has negative impact on their lives. Andersen viewed it as a bad social policy because of the large social costs it entails; it makes it harder for problem gamblers to reform, and makes it contributory to social corruption. But Andersen and those concerned in his study are missing the points of the benefits of gambling, and making it appear that it is one of the deadliest sins in the world. For example, Andersen said that the government is â€Å"supposed to be the minister of God, Romans 13†, but its moral stance is compromised when it enters into legalized gambling. However, it could not be discounted that there are also benefits coming from the

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Accounting as the Important Function of Every Business Organisation Essay

Accounting as the Important Function of Every Business Organisation (Halfords company) - Essay Example Accounting’s main or primary purpose is to identify the activities of the business organisation, recording and measuring the transactions of the business and communicating the financial information to all the interested persons like the shareholders, investors, creditors, management, employees, government etc. The financial information generated from accounting in form of financial statements helps managerial decision making and other important investment decisions. Accounting is an important function of every business organisation. Accounting has various purposes and objectives. Among the various purposes, the main purpose of accounting is to record the transaction of the business enterprise in a systematic manner and to provide information about the financial position of the business enterprise to all its stakeholders. Accounting’s main or primary purpose is to identify the activities of the business organisation, recording and measuring the transactions of the busine ss and communicating the financial information to all the interested persons like the shareholders, investors, creditors, management, employees, government etc. The financial information generated from accounting in form of financial statements helps managerial decision making and other important investment decisions.... Figure 1: Performa of a purchase account in a ledger (Source: National Institute of Open Schooling, n.d, p.125) Thus the ledger is the collection of accounts maintained by the company. The ledger provides balance of the particular account on a particular date like the amount of sales on a particular date can be found from the sales account. Apart from these main books the company can also maintain sales day book and purchase day book to record its credit sales and credit purchase respectively. 2 (b) Every business organisation usually had a number of business transactions. Similarly Halfords would also have a number of transactions during a particular accounting period. The most common transactions that the company would certainly have during an accounting period are as follows:- Cash sales: Cash sales denote selling goods and services on cash. This means that the amount of goods sold or services rendered is immediately received by the company. This transaction is recorded by debitin g the cash or bank account and crediting the sales account. Cash purchase: Cash purchase signifies purchasing goods or services on cash. In cash purchase the amount for the goods purchased or services availed has to be paid immediately. This particular transaction is recorded in the books of accounts by crediting the cash or bank account and debiting the purchase account. Credit sales: Credit sales denote that the goods or services have been sold on credit. In credit sales the amount of goods sold or services rendered are not paid immediately but after a certain period of time (which is known as credit period). This particular transaction is recorded by debiting the debtor’s account (the person to whom the goods are sold) and crediting the

Friday, November 15, 2019

Issues of Discrimination in Sports

Issues of Discrimination in Sports There are many different aspects that define the culture of a group of people. Whether it is the food or the music or the traditions, every single person in this world lives based on the culture that surrounds them. One vital part of a culture is sports. Games are a source of revenue, income, careers and entertainment. They create bonds between people who would otherwise have nothing in common, whether fans, athletes or administrators. A chance of healthy competition between individuals of a society is the basis for the games in which a select few participate and millions watch. Especially for the population of the United States, sports are so ingrained into the culture that it would be hard to imagine a country without them. Sports have been praised for their ability to be a melting pot (Lumpkin), an idea easily understood by the United States, which holds the same nickname. They are considered to be the great equalizer because more attention is given to the abilities of a person than to who they actually are (Humara). Most people believe that sports provide equal opportunities for both majorities and minorities alike (Kahn). But what if this is not true? Just as minorities are discriminated against in everyday society, there is speculation and debate that discrimination occurs in sporting institutes as well. Economists and the general public have become more interested in the issue of discrimination against minorities in professional sports (Kahn). This topic is easily pursued and assessed considering statistics are readily available for the public, such as the gender, age, race, ethnicity and salary of players in professional sports such as baseball, football and basketball (Kahn). A growing number of sports sociologists are focusing on these inequalities and trying to discover if there is an actual problem and if so how it can be corrected (Eisen 127). The general issue of discrimination in institutions was addressed by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. This article prohibits employment discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex and national origin (Hanna). Some people argue that there is still evidence of racial discrimination in sports today, though. Despite laws, the situation becomes sticky when it comes to racial discrimination. Is it really possible to prove that someone was not hired based on their race? In some cases, yes, but in others, no. The government cannot force people to hire certain candidates, but their ability to punish institutions for denying a position to a candidate based on race is limited (Hanna). Within the institution of sports, there are several ways that a person can be discriminated against, such as during the hiring process, what position he or she is allocated, or how much he or she is paid in salary (Kahn). Discrimination can come from employers, coworkers, customers, and people who hold prominent positions such as sportscasters, Hall-of-Fame selection committees, sports executives and franchise owners (Leonard). Discrimination not only affects if someone is able to be a part of a team, but how they are treated while on that team. Minorities are said to experience discrimination during the hiring process simply based on their origin and the fact that those in decision-making positions are more inclined to hire those who are similar to themselves. Since several administrators are white males, they are more likely to hire white males when given the chose between several well-qualified candidates. Those who are hired could possibly experience discrimination through the allocation of their positions; minorities may be given less-prominent leadership and critical-thinking positions such as pitchers and quarterbacks (Kahn). Salary is a difficult area to determine discrimination due to the fact that numbers may be biased, figures may be omitted, players perform different positions at different skill levels, veterans are paid more than rookies, and contracts may differ based on the number of years and the salary to be paid (Kahn). Customers may show their own form of discrimination by refusing to attend games or purch ase certain merchandise, as well as racial slurs said during taunting or trash talking (Lumpkin). The three sports that are voted as the most popular in the United States are baseball, basketball and football. These three only offer a handful of positions: 737 in Major League Baseball (MLB), 245 in the National Basketball Association (NBA) and 1400 in the National Football League (NFL) (Eisen 230). The chances of someone securing a position on a team in these institutions is miniscule, with four out of every 100,000 Caucasians, two out of every 100,000 African Americans and three out of every 100,000 Hispanics successfully doing so (Egendorf 95). Professional sports organizations are required to submit a Racial and Gender Report Card to assess the hiring practices of women and people of color in each organization. These assessments ensure that minorities are justly represented in such prominent organizations by considering the composition of the players, coaches and administration. For example, if African-Americans represent twenty-four percent of the population then twenty-four percent of the positions held in a sports organization must be held by African-Americans. In the 2010 Racial and Gender Report Cards, the MLB, NBA and NFL each scored an A in racial hiring practices, with the MLB and NFL improving from an A- and the NBA dropping from an A+ in 2009 (CBA). The color barrier in baseball was broken by Jackie Robinson in 1947 when he joined the Brooklyn Dodgers and ended segregation in professional baseball (Kahn). At the start of the 2010 season, minorities composed over forty percent of the players in the MBL, including African-Americans, Latinos and Asian-Americans. Nine people of color (three African-Americans, five Latinos and the first Asian-American) hold the title of manager in the MLB, bringing the total managers of color to thirty percent. Thirty-two percent of coaching positions are held by minorities, and they are also well represented in administration positions as well (CBA). The National Basketball Association employs the highest percentage of minorities with eighty-two percent of their players being African-American, Latinos and Asian-Americans. Seventy-seven percent of those players are African-American. International players hold eighteen percent of positions on NBA teams. Michael Jordan is the only African-American majority owner of a professional sports team, but there are four African-American presidents in the NBA. Thirty percent of the head coaches are of a minority, with one American-Asian and eight African-Americans holding positions, while forty-one percent of the assistant coaches are of color (CBA). Administration in the National Football League hosts many positions for minorities as well, with twenty-five percent of the positions being held by African-Americans, Latinos, Asians and Native Americans, but no person of color has ever held majority ownership of an NFL team. The representation of minorities is relatively high for African-Americans at sixty-seven percent, but Latinos and Asian-Americans are only represented with one and two percent, respectively. Out of all of the professional sports organizations, the NFL has the smallest percentage of international players with two percent. The coaching staff of the NFL boasts six African-American coaches and one hundred fifty seven assistant coaches of color (CBA). Based on the data collected from the Racial and Gender Report cards of Major League Baseball, the National Basketball Association and the National Football League, minority representation fares well in these professional sports. Certain measures, such as this report card, have been taken to ensure that minorities are represented in sporting institutes (CBA). One such measure is the Rooney Rule, enacted by the NFL in 2002. The Rooney Rule was headed by Dan Rooney of the Pittsburgh Steelers and states that any NFL team seeking to hire a head coach must interview one or more minority applicants (Hanna). This rule is most likely accountable for the fact that one fourth of NFL teams have a minority coach. Measures like these enable minorities to have an equal opportunity to be represented in the sporting organizations in the country in which they reside. While the numbers show that discrimination is very low, if not nonexistent, in sporting organizations in the United States, they can only go so far. Discrimination is not just about how many players of color are on a sporting team, but what they had to do in order to achieve their position and how they are treated once they are a part of the team. Blacks were excluded from professional sports all together until the 1940s, after World War II (Kahn). Before this time, African-Americans began their own black leagues that mirrored the white-only versions of the sport. For example, Rube Foster founded the National Negro Baseball League in 1920 that offered an alternative for black athletes excluded from the major leagues (Eisen 138). These leagues were a chance for African-Americans and other minorities to play sports they loved, although they were far from equal to their white counterparts. Once minority players were allowed to become a part of professional sports alongside white people, it was an uphill battle. African-Americans were striving for success in institutions that were controlled and defined by white standards (Eisen 135). They had to face the fact that they were both black and American playing white sports (Eisen 133). They wanted to be classified equally with their teammates, but they were defined by their color and not their ability (Eisen 138). These players strove to gain acceptance but never completely broke away from being defined by their race (Eisen 136). Wins symbolized symbolic nails in the coffin of racial inferiority but losses were evidence of their limits as minorities (Eisen 133). Many prominent minority athletes used their social status to help those in their race that were less fortunate while they pursued their careers (Eisen 136). Some may argue that discrimination exists in sporting organizations in the United States today. Qualifications and abilities may be overlooked because of the race of the applicant (Egendorf 103). Since many controlling positions in both professional and collegiate sports are held by white males, minorities have less of a chance of being hired due to the fact that the employer is more likely to hire someone similar to themselves (Egendorf 99). Athletes who have played the sport should be awarded leadership positions, but more often than not whites are hired over minorities (Egendorf 98). Minority athletes, many of whom grow up in lower-income areas, are denied equal training facilities during high school and are therefore at a disadvantage compared to their white counterparts when it comes to trying out for spots on professional sports teams (Kahn). Others do not see discrimination present in organizations such as the MLB, NBA and NFL. These people look at the statistics and notice that minorities are represented more in sports than they are in the entire population (Kahn). They also notice trends, such as the fact that the NBA is representative of more minorities than whites and that the NFL is increasingly composed of Pacific Islanders and Latinos (Egendorf 97). Since white players have more opportunities in society after retirement, they are more likely to retire earlier and therefore will not be as valuable as a minority who will play for a longer amount of time (Kahn). Either way the situation is looked at, minorities are fast becoming a majority (Justice Reader 2). Since the United States have been considered a melting pot for people from so many cultures and the country offers so many more opportunities, more and more people are immigrating in search of a better life. Although America has been defined as white, that is slowly beginning to change (Justice Reader 2). So how is justice ensured to minorities wishing to pursue a career in professional sports? The principle of distributive justice should be followed, or rewards, rights, opportunities, services and treatments because of who that person is, what he or she has done or to which group he or she belongs (Justice Reader 40). If an African-American athlete and a white athlete train equally for a position on a team, they should be given an equal opportunity to try out for that position. Their chances should be fair and consistent. Justice should be understood as merit focused on what is owed a person by virtue of his or her actions, efforts and impacts (Justice Reader 49). In the Old Testament of the Bible, we are told that God loves justice (Isaiah 61:8). The sin of humanity creates injustice in the world, yet we are called to live just and righteous lives (Micah 6:8). A reoccurring theme in the Old Testament is the law that God calls His people to live by. When the law is followed, we are able to live in harmony with God and other humans. This law has been broken, though, creating the injustices that we are dealing with in our day and age. One of the main focuses of the New Testament is the teachings of Jesus. In these teachings, He calls us to love our neighbors as ourselves (Mark 12:31). By treating our brothers and sisters in just ways, we are loving them as we love ourselves and treating them how we would want to be treated. The New Testament also tells us that we are all one body of Christ and therefore everyone is equal (Galatians 3:28). Why should some have privileges over others or be treated with injustice? Sporting organizations are very prevalent in the culture and society of the United States. The issue of minority representation has always been a controversy in the sporting world due to the fact that a successful career in athletics leads to success away from the athletic world (Eisen 221). Not only is minority representation important since they are a large part of the culture, but minorities are given more opportunities through a career in sports. Creating a system that gives equal opportunities and treatments to both majorities and minorities is one way to solve injustices in sporting organizations. Some actions to begin this system have been started, such as the Rooney Rule in the NFL. Individuals can voice their opinions when it comes to sporting organizations, such as protesting unjust actions and treatments. One voice may not be a lot, but many voices together can make a loud sound.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Accountant Essay

How comfortable are you working long hours to achieve success? Working overtime or extra hours will not be a problem for me, because I used to work 10 hours per day and to work overtime to finish some special tasks in my previous Job. Sometimes, I spent my personal time on resolving some potential risks and problems that I found. 2. How eager are you to keep on learning to stay ahead of the curve? I am more than happy to learn in the work place because I value the process of continuous improvement. As long as I was instructed to handle something new in my previous ob, I felt excited and satisfied. The double-loop learning process benefits me from applying new knowledge and techniques to work-related areas and self-reflecting the aspects that I can improve. In addition, I am actively pursuing academic success outside work place. For example, I am the youngest CMA candidate in my CMA session. 3. Can you deal with the income volatility that you will be facing during the first few months? I have no financial problem preventing me from accepting a Job if the income is low at the beginning. I worked as a no pay intern during the first two months in my previous Job. Since I am still young, I never put salary as the top priority in searching for a Job. The thing I concern more is whether this Job can help me to develop my competitive edge or not. 4. How comfortable are you working long hours to achieve success? Working overtime or extra hours will not be a problem for me, because I used to work 10 hours per day and to work overtime to finish some special tasks in my previous Job. Sometimes, I spent my personal time on resolving some potential risks and problems that I found. . How eager are you to keep on learning to stay ahead of the curve? I am more than happy to learn in the work place because I value the process of continuous improvement. As long as I was instructed to handle something new in my previous Job, I felt excited and satisfied. The double- loop learning process benefits me from applying new knowledge and techniques to work-related areas and self-reflecting the aspects that I can improve. In addition, I am actively pursuing academic success outside work place. For example, I am the youngest CMA candidate in my CMA session. 6. Can you deal with the income volatility that you will be facing during the first few months? I have no financial roblem preventing me from accepting a Job if the income is low at the beginning. I worked as a no pay intern during the first two months in my previous Job. Since I am still young, I never put salary as the top priority in searching for a Job. The thing I concern more is whether this Job can help me to develop my competitive edge or not. 7. How comfortable are you working long hours to achieve success? Working overtime 8. How eager are you to keep on learning to stay ahead of the curve? I am more than session. 9. Can you deal with the income volatility that you will be facing during the me to develop my competitive edge or not. 0. How comfortable are you working long some potential risks and problems that I found. 11. How eager are you to keep on youngest CMA candidate in my CMA session. 12. Can you deal with the income 13. How comfortable are you working long hours to achieve success? Working overtime or extra hours will not be a problem for me, because I used to work 10 hours per day and to work overtime to finish some special tasks in my previous Job. Sometimes, I spent my personal time on resolving some potential risks and problems that I found. 14. How eager are you to keep on learning to stay ahead of the curve? I am more than happy to learn in the work place because I value the process of continuous improvement. As long as I was instructed to handle something new in my previous Job, I felt excited and satisfied. The double-loop learning process benefits me from applying new knowledge and techniques to work-related areas and self- reflecting the aspects that I can improve. In addition, I am actively pursuing academic success outside work place. For example, I am the youngest CMA candidate in my CMA session. 15. Can you deal with the income volatility that you will be facing during the first few months? I have no financial problem preventing me from accepting a Job if the income is low at the beginning. I worked as a no pay intern during the first two months in my previous Job. Since I am still young, I never put salary as the top priority in searching for a Job. The thing I concern more is whether this Job can help me to develop my competitive edge or not. 16. How comfortable are you working long hours to achieve success? Working overtime or extra hours will not be a problem for me, because I used to work 10 hours per day and to work overtime on resolving some potential risks and problems that I found. 7. How eager are you to keep on learning to stay ahead of the curve? I am more than happy to learn in the work place because I value the process of continuous improvement. As long as I was instructed to handle something new in my previous Job, I felt excited and satisfied. The double-loop learning process benefits me from applying new knowledge and techniques to work-related areas and self-reflecting the aspects that I can improve. In addition, I am actively pursuing academic success outside work place. For example, I am the youngest CMA candidate in my CMA session. 18. Can you deal with the ncome volatility that you will be facing during the first few months? I have no financial problem preventing me from accepting a Job if the income is low at the beginning. I worked as a no pay intern during the first two months in my previous job. Since I am still young, I never put salary as the top priority in searching for a Job. The thing I concern more is whether this Job can help me to develop my competitive edge or not. 19. How comfortable are you working long hours to achieve success? Working overtime or extra hours will not be a problem for me, because I used to work 0 hours per day and to work overtime to finish some special tasks in my previous job. Sometimes, I spent my personal time on resolving some potential risks and problems that I found. 20. How eager are you to keep on learning to stay ahead of the curve? I am more than happy to learn in the work place because I value the process of continuous improvement. As long as I was instructed to handle something new in my previous Job, I felt excited and satisfied. The double-loop learning process benefits me from applying new knowledge and techniques to work-related areas and elf-reflecting the aspects that I can improve. In addition, I am actively pursuing academic success outside work place. For example, I am the youngest CMA candidate in my CMA session. 21 . Can you deal with the income volatility that you will be facing this Job can help me to develop my competitive edge or not. 22. How comfortable are to finish some special tasks in my previous Job. Sometimes, I spent my personal time on resolving some potential risks and problems that I found. 23. How eager are you am the youngest CMA candidate in my CMA session. 24. Can you deal with the edge or not.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Should Huck Finn Be Taught in Schools Essay

There is a great deal of controversy over whether or not The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain should be taught in schools. It has been argued that Mark Twain depicts Jim as Huck’s impotent and submissive sidekick. Another argument made is that Jim isn’t portrayed as much of an actual human being nor is he treated like one throughout the novel. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn should be taught in schools so that students and teachers are able to think about and discuss their opinions on what Mark Twain’s purpose was in depicting Jim the way he does.Many critics claim that Mark Twain saw Jim as no more than some type of loyal sidekick who was depicted as a simple-minded character who showed few humanistic characteristics throughout the book. This is not the case, Mark Twain had a purpose in creating a character like Jim, to reinforce yet challenge stereotypical racism back in that time period. Mark Twain did in fact make Jim a simple-minded character lacking intellectual abilities but he also humanized Jim by giving him traits like feelings and also by giving him somewhat of a paternal role to Huck. Doan’ know, yit, what he’s a-gywne to do† (85). â€Å"I went in en unkivered him and didn’t let you come in? Well den, you k’n git yo’ money when you wants it; kase dat wuz him† (320). These two quotes from the beginning and end of the novel show that Jim had no real intellectual growth throughout the novel. Mark Twain continues to have Jim speak in poor (poorer than the the other characters) English to reinforce the stereotypical racism of uneducated African Americans in the South.However, Mark Twain also gives Jim somewhat of a paternal role towards Huck which makes Jim out to be more humane. â€Å"Come in Huck, but doan’ look at his face – it’s to gashly. I didn’t look at him at all. Jim throwed some old rags over him†¦ † (50). This passage fro m the book shows the paternal instinct Twain gave to Jim’s character in which he undermines racist stereotypes like Tom Sawyer’s Aunt Sally who claims that black slaves were not people (221). â€Å"My heart wuz mos’ broke bekase you was los’, en I didn’ k’yer no’ mo’ what become er me en de raf’†¦..It was fifteen minutes before I could go and humble myself to a nigger, but I done it, and I warn’t ever sorry for it, neither. I didn’t do him no more mean tricks and I wouldn’t done that one if I’d ‘a’ known it would make him feel that way† (86). In this passage Mark Twain allows Jim to voice his emotions and by doing so Jim is able to not only make Huck listen but think about the way he treated Jim. Mark Twain not only breaks racist stereotypes through Jim in this passage but breaks them through Huck.Huck acknowledges that Jim is capable of having feelings and allows his own mood to be influenced by the fact that he hurt Jim’s feelings by doing so Huck has made himself â€Å"equal† to Jim thus giving another example of humanizing Jim. â€Å"Said the witches bewitched him and put him in a trance, and rode him all over the State, and then set him under the trees again and huge his hat on a limb to show who done it† (6). Jim’s story about the witches shows his childlike, naive way of thinking developed from a life in slavery in which he was sheltered from knowledge.Jim’s lack of gumption allows Twain to fortify the patronizing racist stereotypes that had developed in the South at this time. How Mark Twain depicts Jim in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn as well as Twain’s reasoning for doing so is a reason in and of itself why Huck Finn should be taught in schools. Huck Finn is more than just an adventure novel it is a book that encourages and requires students as well as teachers to think about the deeper mea nings, such as Mark Twain’s purpose in creating a character like Jim.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Impact of digital technology essays

Impact of digital technology essays Digital technology has a lot of impact on our national security. Such technology innovations as the Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System, US-VISIT program, and Automated Biometric Identification System use biometrics as a key element in protecting our country from terrorists. Other innovations of digital technology, such as inventions of software to help conduct counterterrorism training drills, will help us to prepare for disasters and will lead to intelligent cities that can better protect ports of entry and its citizens. Each year the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services receives approximately seven million applications for immigration benefits. BCIS has now developed the technology to accept electronic filing of certain applications for immigration benefits. This technology improves both customer service and BCIS ability to verify the identity of individuals in the future. E-filing, combined with the collection and storage of an applicants digital photograph, signature, and fingerprint, allow the BCIS to produce a high quality immigration document with special security features. One great innovation in digital technology that will allow the United States to improve the nations security and the integrity is US-VISIT system. US-VISIT represents the greatest single advance in border technology in three decades. The Homeland Security Department has established US-VISIT to: Enhance the safety of our citizens and visitors; Facilitate legitimate travel and trade; Ensure the integrity of our immigration system; and Protect the privacy of travelers to the United States. US-VISIT uses biometrics, such as digital, inkless finger scans and digital photographs, which enable the Homeland Security Department to determine whether the person applying for entry to the United States is the same person who was issued the visa by State .With the help of the US-VISIT system...

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Examples of Regular and Irregular German Verbs

Examples of Regular and Irregular German Verbs Weak (regular) verbs follow a predictable pattern and do not vary in the way strong verbs do. 1. arbeiten (to work) - regular (weak) verb; -tet ending Present: Er arbeitet bei SAP. - He works at SAP. (is working)Past/Preterite: Er arbeitete bei SAP. - He worked at SAP. (was working)Pres. Perfect/Perfekt: Er hat bei SAP gearbeitet. - He worked at SAP. (has worked)Past Perfect/Plusquamperfekt: Er hatte bei SAP gearbeitet. - He had worked at SAP.Future/Futur: Er wird bei SAP arbeiten. - He will work at SAP. 2. spielen (to play) - regular (weak) verb Present: Sie spielt Karten. - Shes playing cards.Past/Preterite: Sie spielte Karten. - She played cards. (was playing)Pres. Perfect/Perfekt: Sie hat Karten gespielt. - She played cards. (has played)Past Perfect/Plusquamperfekt: Sie hatte Karten gespielt. - She had played cards.Future/Futur: Sie wird Karten spielen. - She will play cards. 3. mitspielen (to play along) - regular (weak) verb - separable prefix Present: Sie spielt mit. - Shes playing along.Past/Preterite: Sie spielte mit. - She played along. (was playing along)Pres. Perfect/Perfekt: Sie hat mitgespielt. - She played along. (has played along)Past Perfect/Plusquamperfekt: Sie hatte mitgespielt. - She had played along.Future/Futur: Sie wird mitspielen. - She will play along. Strong (Irregular) German Verbs: Various Tenses These verbs have irregular forms and must be memorized 1. fahren (to drive, travel) - strong, irregular verb; stem-changing Present: Er fhrt nach Berlin. - Hes driving/traveling to Berlin.Past/Preterite: Er fuhr nach Berlin. - He went/traveled to Berlin.Pres. Perfect/Perfekt: Er ist nach Berlin gefahren. - He went/traveled to Berlin. (has traveled)Past Perfect/Plusquamperfekt: Er war nach Berlin gefahren. - He had gone to Berlin.Future/Futur: Er wird nach Berlin fahren. - He will travel to Berlin. 2. sprechen (to speak) - strong, irregular verb Present: Er spricht Deutsch. - He speaks German. (is speaking)Past/Preterite: Er sprach Deutsch. - He spoke German. (was speaking)Pres. Perfect/Perfekt: Er hat Deutsch gesprochen. - He spoke German. (has spoken)Past Perfect/Plusquamperfekt: Er hatte Deutsch gesprochen. - He had spoken German.Future/Futur: Er wird Deutsch sprechen. - He will speak German. 3. abfahren (to depart) - strong verb - separable prefix Present: Wir fahren morgen ab. - We leave/depart tomorrow. (are departing)Past/Preterite: Wir fuhren gestern ab. - We left yesterday. (were leaving)Pres. Perfect/Perfekt: Wir sind gestern abgefahren. - We left yesterday. (have departed)Past Perfect/Plusquamperfekt: Wir waren gestern abgefahren. - We had left yesterday.Future/Futur: Wir werden morgen abfahren. - We will leave/depart tomorrow. 4. besprechen (to discuss) - strong verb - inseparable prefix Present: Wir besprechen dieses Thema. - We are discussing this topic.Past/Preterite: Wir besprachen das gestern. - We discussed that yesterday. (were discussing)Pres. Perfect/Perfekt: Wir haben das gestern besprochen. - We discussed that yesterday. (have discussed)Past Perfect/Plusquamperfekt: Wir hatten das vorgestern besprochen. - We had discussed that the day before yesterday.Future/Futur: Wir werden das morgen besprechen. - We will discuss that tomorrow. Special Verb Examples Past action continuing into the present (present tense): He has been living in Berlin for three years. (and he still is)Er wohnt schon seit drei Jahren in Berlin. Action ending in the past: He lived (used to live) in Berlin for three years. (but no longer does)Er hat drei Jahre lang in Berlin gewohnt.

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Twitter in Diet Pepsi's Commercial Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Twitter in Diet Pepsi's Commercial - Essay Example It is then that she witnesses a lady drinking diet pepsi to refresh herself. The ad is meant specifically for both ladies and men but the emphasis is more on the ladies. This can be seen from the ad when ladies run away from the stall to see David Beckham. However on the other hand men are also targeted through this ad as in the very beginning the huge line at the diet pepsi stall consists of men too. Men and women of younger generation who tend to get tired and exhausted of the heat are targeted through this ad. Methods of reaching the audience The advertisement made by the brand is reaching out to the audience through different means. The use of celebrities is one way through which the brand is reaching out to the consumers. It is creating a value and character amongst the consumers by showing the characters of David Beckham and Sofia Vergara. Both of these celebrities are well known amongst the masses and hence the brand is showing value to the consumers. The consumers may choose the product because of the well known celebrities in some instances. The value created by the brand would be most useful when settling in for the audience as many people try products because of these celebrities. People who are interested in sports would definitely try the drink because of David Beckham. Women have been specifically targeted by the brand by using logic as women are diet conscious (Kotler & Armstrong, 1991). The ad shows Sofia Vergara and other women with a nice body which helps to promote the product. The ad is basically targeting women who want to be fit and are diet conscious. The ad also has some humour in it which attracts the audience through emotions. The audience may get attracted to the humour and urge shown in the ad to get Pepsi. Sofia Vergara uses her techniques to split the line so that she can go and buy Pepsi. In other words the ad urges the audience to drink diet pepsi so that they can check the taste for themselves. Effectiveness of the Ad The ad can be quite effective in reaching out to the audience because of the different methods that it has incorporated into it. Women and people who are exhausted are targeted by the brand and the advertisement quite successfully does that. The advertisement shows that the drink is quite refreshing and one might use different skills to reach out the product. The celebrity uses logic so that she can buy the drink and hence the ad effectively produces a need amongst the audience which needs to be refreshed (Dehlin et al., 2010). Improvements   The ad incorporates several ideas of marketing but it does lack out to reach a larger audience. The ad could be used in a different way so that a broader audience was targeted. Children have not been specifically targeted by the brand and this idea could have been incorporated into the ad. A celebrity which is loved by the younger generation could be used in the ad so that the children ran over to the celebrity. Exhausted children could also be include d in the ad so that children were also made an audience in the ad. Men are shown in the ad but they are not specifically targeted upon and the brand could use methods to include them in the ad. Men could have been shown running for a female celebrity which was supposedly on the pier along with David Beckham. Conclusion The ad done by the brand is endorsed by celebrities and this can help to target a specific audience. Diet Pepsi is not only meant for women but is also meant to be for men so

Friday, November 1, 2019

What causes inflation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

What causes inflation - Essay Example It will also look at some of the ways that an individual is able to calculate the inflation rate in an economy. However, the paper will not only focus on the negative side of matters and in conclusion it will also determine what solutions have been brought about on how the economy can avoid such a situation. Introduction Inflation can be described as the increase in the price level of various services and goods within an economy that takes place over a period of time. It should be noted that this increase happens in all sectors of the market meaning that almost goods and services suffer as a result and those in the economy end with a rising expenditure for the same things that they used to buy before (Taylor 89). It may not be very noticeable at first as it is a gradual process and prices do not sky rocket on the first day meaning that many individuals are usually caught off their guard by the situation leading to a financial panic as they realize just what exactly is going on. As a result of inflation, money also loses a fair amount of purchasing power meaning that an individual is able to buy less with a certain amount that before was adequate for his expenditure needs (Svensson 148). Loss of purchasing power of a currency is not good for the economy as this serves to lower the value of a currency as a whole in the end. It is due to this fact that individuals and institutions struggle against any signs of inflation in a bid to avoid from taking place and stopping it in its tracks as early as possible, the sooner the better (Taylor 101). Though inflation is viewed mostly as a negative impact on the economy, it should be noted that there are both positive and negative effects that are associated with this occurrence. Measures of Inflation One is able to identify the onset of inflation in an economy by measuring the inflation rate of that economy. Though there are a number of other ways in which measuring can be done, this is the main method that is used by econ omists on a global scale. Measuring the inflation rate is done by taking note of the yearly change in percentage terms of a price index over a period of time (Abel & Bernanke 93). The price index that is mostly used for these purposes is the consumer index though other can be used as well. The consumer price index is determined by measuring the prices of a selection of various goods and services that are usually bought by the average consumer and include items that may be needed on a daily basis such as foodstuffs and other supplies (Baumol & Blinder 25). High end items are not included in this collection of goods and services as they are first o f all not bought by the typical consumer and second of all not purchased on a regular basis thus they would reflect dishonestly on the final figure that is obtained in the end. Apart from the consumer price index, other indices that are also used to obtain the level of inflation in an economy also include the producer price index. This inde x concentrates on the producers rather than the consumers and determines the amount of money that domestic producers receive for their products over time determining the changes calculated in percentage in the process (Abel & Bernanke 98). The difference between this and the Consumer Price Index is mainly due to issues such as taxes and the intention of profit that will make the

Wednesday, October 30, 2019


ADVANCED AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY; CASE STUDY ON ALLERGY - Essay Example However, the most common protein causing milk allergy is alpha S1-casein. Others may me caseins and whey. In case of egg allergy, the most common allergen is ovomucoid while others present in egg white are ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme. The egg yolk also contains some allergens that start an antibody reaction and among the most common are apovitillin, livetin and vosvetin. In case of peanut allergy the mostly common allergen found is a Lupine which is a legume and causes severe allergy in patients sensitive to it. 4. Th-2 like cells can be identified in the peripheral blood and lesions of atopic-dermatitis patients producing IL-4, 5, 13 and also IL-17 from Th17 cells. Explain the role(s) of these cytokines in allergy (10 Marks). The Th2 response is characterized by the release of several interleukins that ultimately goes through a chain of responses that leads to ‘humoral immunity’ by neutralizinge the non-cytolytic antibodies. The Th2-type cytokines include Interleukins 4, 5 and 13. IL 4, 5 and 13 are linked with the support of IgE and eosinophilic response in atopy. Other than this IL-17 has more of anti-inflammatory effect. Therefore, Th2 finds to be counteracting the Th1 medicated microbial action and thus produces a well balanced response to an immune attack (BMJ 2000). At homeostasis, Mast cells are the important cells that are present not only in skin but also in mucosal tissues. Both mast cells and quantity of eosinophils in mucosa are related to hyperactivity of lungs. There are several studies that suggest a correlation between mast cells and eosinophills that at some extent related to Eosinophil Cationic protein release. On stimulation, mast cells release IL-5 and PAF to enhance Eosinophil Cationic Protein (ECP) release from eosinophils. Since the number of mast cells is elevated in Asthmatic patients thus this assay is quite helpful in finding the allergic reaction. Hygiene Hypothesis suggests that the

Monday, October 28, 2019

Teachers and bullying Essay Example for Free

Teachers and bullying Essay â€Å"Bullying poisons the educational environment and affects the learning of every child. †(Olweus) Some of the common effects of bullying on children include sadness, depression, poor body image and eating disorders, skipping school, bad grades, headaches, stomach aches, sleeping trouble, thoughts and even acts of suicide. The study also looked at relationship between empathy of the teacher and how they handled bullying incidents. Among the teachers who thought that the incidents were not serious or thought that the victims misperceived the situation, it was found that those teachers who felt empathy for a child at least tried to understand the child’s experiences and factors that shaped his or her behaviours. The teachers who did not show empathy did not try to understand the children. The research also cites two teachers who described some children as crying fake tears while describing their experiences. The teachers did not try to comprehend the children’s experiences or behaviours. They termed the children as provocative victims who exhibit that both the peers and adults find irritating. When such children report victimisation and bullying experience, the school personnel tend to be unsympathetic and ignores it. This strengthens the findings by researchers such as Craig et al (2000), Eslea and Smith (2000), Kallestad and Olweus (2003) that defies empathy as a key factor in how the teachers characterise and respond to bullying incidents and also how they implement anti-bullying programs. The research found that even when the individuals are able to articulate a clear definition of bullying, other factors can influence how they characterise and respond to the bullying situation. This can have an affect on the children if they perceive that sufficient action has not been taken by the teachers. Hence it would be beneficial to provide the teachers information on the factors that can influence individual’s decisions about what constitutes bullying and not. Indirect bullying was found to be the most challenging for the teachers to recognise as well as to know whether and how to intervene. Most often the teachers were unaware that children were bullied and did not consider the child’s case serious. This was also found by researches Craig et al (2000), Hazler et al (2001). Research by Siann et al (1993) found that teachers neglected to consider repetition in most of their definitions. The research found out that the assumption of the teacher about the characteristics displayed by the victims prevented them from recognizing the victimised children when they did not match the assumptions made. Researches conducted by O’Moore (2000) found that focussing on the individual characteristic of children who bully or who are victimised can minimise the awareness of factors such as social context and can obscure other factors that are central to the bullying such as the victimised child’s experience with distress due to the bullying activity. Researches conducted by Siann et al (1993) and Ireland and Ireland (2000) found that that subjectivity, especially when related to the indirect bullying can severely influence the intervention negatively. The teachers doubting the child’s view may contribute to the further lack of disclosure to the teachers. This was found to be intertwined with empathy shown by the teacher. Craig et al (2000), Kallestad and Olweus (2003) found the important relationship between empathy and how teachers responded to the bully victims. It was identified that the teachers require assistance to become cognizant of their attitudes also that their views may not correspond to the views of the children. This helps teachers to understand that sometimes the child’s distress may be greater than that anticipated by the teacher. According to Landau, Milich, Harris and Larson (2001), this understanding can increase the teacher’s ability to recognise and intervene in bullying situation. This assumes greater importance considering that the educators need to protect children who are victimised but who may not recognise or feel that they are being bullied. The research also found out that majority of the teachers was themselves subjected to bullying as children. According to the teachers, this personal experience influenced how they reacted to the bullying of their students. Kallestad and Olweus (2003) found an association between the teachers who identified as bullied as a child with the responses and interventions they participated in. However a study conducted by Nicolaides et al (2002) indicates that there is no strong influence of bullying during the childhood on the response of the teacher to bullying. Gibbons, Lichtenbert and van Beusekom (1994) found that it is necessary for the educators and other professionals need to deal with their own feelings that the incidents may evoke in order to respond effectively to the bullying situations. According to the research conducted by Boulton (1997, Craig et al (2000), Townsend-Wiggins (2001), training is essential for the teachers to increase the confidence and competence to respond to the bullying activities. It was found that most of the teachers had not received any training and expressed their desire to undertake this type of training. (Mishna, F. et al, 2005).

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Essay --

This essay will be comparing and contrasting two magazines aimed at the female readership, and they are called Bitch Magazine and Cosmopolitan, with regards to their front pages, content and articles, their ideals of beauty, and feminism. With this essay, we will learn the extreme differences between two magazines Bitch is a Portland based independent, quarterly magazine, with a touting a tagline of a â€Å"feminist response to pop culture.† Founded in 1996, Bitch is published by Bitch Media, a non-profit multimedia organization. This magazine offers a feminist perspective and analysis of social and cultural trends, current political events, as well as forms of media such as television, movies, music, books, artwork, and advertising. Bitch magazine has around 50,000 readers. Cosmopolitan is an international magazine for women, and is the best-selling women’s magazine for decades. The notoriously risquà © magazine says it is â€Å"by women for women.† Also referred as Cosmo, the magazine was published in 1886 in the United States as a family magazine, and eventually became what we know of as a women’s magazine during the late 1960’s. This magazine is published by a for-profit organization called Hearst Magazine and has 64 international editions. It is currently being printed in 35 languages and is being distributed in more than 100 countries. Its boasts more than 3 million in paid circulation each and every month, and 115,000 paid subscribers. To begin with, I will be comparing the magazines front page’s headlines. Cosmopolitan is ridiculously formulaic and right from the get go you can tell from a comparison of previous front page headlines. Each issue meticulously follows the same predetermined formula. Their headlines are trashy and des... ...ncourages and instills the idea that women are amazingly great without changing themselves or suppressing their unique identities. This essay has compared and contrasted two magazines aimed at the female readership, and they are called Bitch Magazine and Cosmopolitan, with regards to their front pages, content and articles, their ideals of beauty, and feminism. Cosmopolitan is a magazine that gives harmful ideas to women about their sexuality, their health and happiness, and how it is supposedly dependent upon whether or not they fit into the unrealistic beauty standards that this magazine possesses. In divergence, Bitch Magazine teaches women to love themselves and to support each other no matter what. Bitch encourages women to understand that they are absolutely perfect just the way they are and that there is no need to change or suppress their given identities.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Economics- Asean

History of ASEAN: ASEAN was originally formed out of an organization called the Association of Southeast Asia (ASA), an alliance consisting of the Philippines, Malaysia, and Thailand that formed in 1961. As such, ASA is considered the predecessor to ASEAN. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a political and economic organization of countries located in Southeast Asia. ASEAN was formed on August 8, 1967 by the Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, Singapore, as a display of solidarity against Communist expansion in Vietnam and insurgency within their own borders. ASEAN itself was established on August 8, 1967, when foreign ministers of five countries— Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand met at the Thai Department of Foreign Affairs building in Bangkok and signed the ASEAN Declaration (also known as the Bangkok Declaration). The five foreign ministers, considered the organization's Founding Fathers, were Adam Malik of Indonesia, Narciso R. Ramos of the Philippines, Tun Abdul Razak of Malaysia, S. Rajaratnam of Singapore, and Thanat Khoman of Thailand. The founding fathers envisaged that the organization would eventually encompass all countries in Southeast Asia. Brunei Darussalam became the sixth member of the ASEAN when it joined on January 8, 1984, barely a week after the country became independent on January 1. It would be a further 11 years before ASEAN expanded from its core six members. Vietnam became the seventh member—and the first Communist member of ASEAN—on July 28, 1995, and Laos and Myanmar joined two years later in July 23, 1997. Cambodia was to have joined the ASEAN together with Laos and Myanmar, but was deferred due to the country's internal political struggle. Cambodia later joined on April 30, 1999, following the stabilization of its government. Thus was completed the ASEAN-10 —the organization of all countries in Southeast Asia. The ASEAN region has a population of about 500 million, a total area of 4. 5 million square kilometers, a combined gross domestic product of almost US$ 700 billion, and a total trade of about US$ 850 billion. Members of ASEAN: Member Countries | |[pic] |[pic] |[pic] |[pic] |[pic] | |Brunei Darussalam |Cambodia |Indonesia |Laos |Malaysia | | | | | | | |[pic] |[pic] |[pic] |[pic] |[pic] | |Myanmar |Philippines |Singapore |Thailand |Vietnam | The ASEAN was founded by five states, mostly from maritime Southeast Asia: the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. The British protectorate of Brunei joined the ASEAN six days after the country became independent f rom the United Kingdom on January 8, 1984. The mainland states of Vietnam, Laos and Myanmar were later admitted. Vietnam joined the ASEAN on July 28, 1995. Laos and Myanmar were admitted into the ASEAN on July 23, 1997. Cambodia became the newest member when it was admitted on April 30,1999. The Melanesian state of Papua New Guinea has observer status in the ASEAN. East Timor on the other hand is expected to formally apply for full membership at the 2006 39th Annual Ministerial Meeting of ASEAN Foreign Ministers in Kuala Lumpur. The association includes about 8% of the world's population and in 2003 it had a combined GDP of about USD$700 billion, growing at an average rate of around 4% per annum. The economies of member countries of ASEAN are diverse, although its major products include electronics, petroleum, and wood. The ASEAN countries are culturally rich. It includes more Muslims than any other geopolitical entity. About 240 million Muslims live mostly in Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei. Buddhism constitutes the main religion of mainland Southeast Asia and there are about 170 million Buddhists in Thailand, Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam and Singapore. Roman Catholicism is predominant in the Philippines. Through the Bali Concord 11 in 2003, Asean has subscribed to the notion of democratic peace, which means all member countries believe democratic processes will promote regional peace and stability. Also the non-democratic members all agreed that it was something all member states should aspire to. Objectives of ASEAN: The ASEAN Declaration states that the aims and purposes of the Association are: (1) To accelerate economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the region and 2) To promote regional peace and stability through abiding respect for justice and the rule of law in the relationship among countries in the region and adherence to the principles of the United Nations Charter. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES ASEAN Member Countries have adopted the followi ng fundamental principles in their relations with one another: †¢ Mutual respect for the independence, sovereignty, equality, territorial integrity, and national identity of all nations; †¢ The right of every State to lead its national existence free from external interference, subversion or coercion; †¢ Non-interference in the internal affairs of one another; †¢ Settlement of differences or disputes by peaceful manner; †¢ Renunciation of the threat or use of force; and †¢ Effective cooperation among themselves. General information of ASEAN: Members |[pic]  Brunei | | |[pic]  Cambodia | | |[pic]  Indonesia | | |[pic]  Laos | | |[pic]  Malaysia | | |[pic]  Myanmar | | |[pic]  Philippines | | |[pic]  Singapore | | |[pic]  Thailand | | |[pic]  Vietnam | |Seat of Secretariat |Jakarta | |Secretary General |Ong Keng Yong | |Area |4,480,000 km2 | |Population | | |  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Total  (2004) |592,000,000 | |  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Density |122. 3 peop le/km? | |GDP (2003) | | |  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Total |$2. 72 trillion (PPP) | |  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Total |$681 billion (Nominal) | |  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ GDP/capita |$4,044 (PPP) | |  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ GDP/capita |$1,267 (Nominal) | |Formation |Bangkok Declaration | |  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Signed | | | | | | |  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ 8 August 1967 | |Currencies |Bruneian Dollar (BND), | | |Rupiah (IDR), Riel (KHR), | | |Kip (LAK), Kyat (MMK), | | |Ringgit (MYR), Peso (PHP), | | |Singapore Dollar (SGD), | | |Baht (THB), Dong (VND) | The ASEAN Summit: The organization holds annual meetings in relation to economic, and cultural development of Southeast Asian countries. The ASEAN Leaders' Formal Summit was first held in Bali, Indonesia in 1976. At first there was no set schedule due to domestic issues in the member countries. In 1992, leaders decided to hold meetings every three years; and in 2001 it was decided to meet annually to address urgent issues affecting the region. Member nations were assigned to be the summit host in alphabetical order except in the case of Myanmar which dropped its 2006 hosting rights in 2004 due to pressure from the United States and the european union. The formal summit meets for three days. The usual itinerary is as follows: ? ASEAN leaders hold an internal organization meeting. ASEAN leaders hold a conference together with foreign ministers of the ASEAN Regional Forum. ? Leaders of 3 ASEAN Dialogue Partners (also known as ASEAN+3) namely China, Japan and South Korea hold a meeting with the ASEAN leaders. ? A separate meeting is set for leaders of 2 ASEAN Dialogue Partners (also known as ASEAN-CER) namely Australia an d New-Zealand. At the 11th ASEAN Summit in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, new meetings were scheduled. ? East Asia Summit – converging ASEAN and six dialogue partners namely China, Japan, South Korea, Australia, New Zealand and India. ? ASEAN-Russia Summit – meeting between ASEAN leaders and the President of Russia. ASEAN Formal Summit | |Number |Date |Country |Place | |1st |1976 February 23 – February 24 |[pic]  Indonesia |Bali | |2nd |1977 August 4 – August 5 |[pic]  Malaysia |Kuala Lumpur | |3rd |1987 December 14 – December 15 |[pic]  Philippines |Metro Manila | |4th |1992 January 27 – January 29 |[pic]  Singapore |Singapore | |5th |1995 December 14 – December 15 |[pic]  Thailand |Bangkok | |6th |1998 December 15 – December 16 |[pic]  Vietnam |Hanoi | |7th |2001 November 5 – November 6 |[pic]  Brunei |Bandar Seri Begawan | |8th |2002 November 4 – November 5 |[pic]  Cambodia |Phnom Penh | |9th |2003 Oc tober 7 – October 8 |[pic]  Indonesia |Bali | |10th |2004 November 29 – November 30 |[pic]  Laos |Vientiane | |11th |2005 December 12 – December 14 |[pic]  Malaysia |Kuala Lumpur | |12th |2006 December 11 – December 14 |[pic]  Philippines |Metro Cebu | |13th |2007 |[pic]  Singapore |Singapore | |14th |2008 |[pic]  Thailand | |15th |2009 |[pic]  Vietnam | | Logo and Flag of ASEAN: [pic] The New ASEAN logo represents a stable, peaceful, united and dynamic ASEAN. The colors of the logo — blue, red, white and yellow — represent the main colors of the crests of all the ASEAN countries. The blue represents peace and stability. Red depicts courage and dynamism. White shows purity and yellow symbolizes prosperity. The ten stalks of padi represent the dream of ASEAN's Founding Fathers for an ASEAN comprising all the ten countries in Southeast Asia bound together in friendship and solidarity. The circle represents the unity of ASEAN. [pi c] Flag of ASEAN In 2003, the ASEAN Leaders resolved that an ASEAN Community shall be established comprising three pillars, namely, ASEAN Security Community, ASEAN Economic Community and ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community. ASEAN SECURITY COMMUNITY To build on what has been constructed over the years in the field of political and security cooperation, the ASEAN Leaders have agreed to establish the ASEAN Security Community (ASC). The ASC shall aim to ensure that countries in the region live at peace with one another and with the world in a just, democratic and harmonious environment. It has the following components: political development; shaping and sharing of norms; conflict prevention; conflict resolution; post-conflict peace building; and implementing mechanisms. It will be built on the strong foundation of ASEAN processes, principles, agreements, and structures, which evolved over the years. ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY Its goal is to create a stable, prosperous and highly competitive ASEAN economic region in which there is a free flow of goods, services, investment and a free flow of capital, equitable economic development and reduced poverty and socio-economic disparities in year 2020. The ASEAN Economic Community shall establish ASEAN as a single market and production base, turning the diversity that characterizes the region into opportunities for business complementation and making the ASEAN a more dynamic and stronger segment of the global supply chain. ASEAN’s strategy shall consist of the integration of ASEAN and enhancing ASEAN’s economic competitiveness. In moving towards the ASEAN Economic Community, ASEAN has agreed on the following: †¢ Institute new mechanisms and measures to strengthen the implementation of its existing economic initiatives including the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA), ASEAN Framework Agreement on Services (AFAS) and ASEAN Investment Area (AIA); †¢ Accelerate regional integration in the following priority sectors by 2010: air travel, agro-based products, automotives, e-commerce, electronics, fisheries, healthcare, rubber-based products, textiles and apparels, tourism, and wood-based products. Facilitate movement of business persons, skilled labor and talents; and strengthen the institutional mechanisms of ASEAN, including the improvement of the existing ASEAN Dispute Settlement Mechanism to ensure expeditious and legally-binding resolution of any economic disputes. Other major integrati on-related economic activities of ASEAN include the following: †¢ Roadmap for Financial and Monetary Integration of ASEAN in four areas, namely, capital market development, capital account liberalization, liberalization of financial services and currency cooperation; †¢ Trans-ASEAN transportation network consisting of major inter-state highway and railway networks, including the Singapore to Kunming Rail-Link, principal ports, and sea lanes for maritime traffic, inland waterway transport, and major civil aviation links; †¢ Roadmap for Integration of Air Travel Sector; Interoperability and interconnectivity of national telecommunications equipment and services, including the ASEAN Telecommunications Regulators Council Sectoral Mutual Recognition Arrangement (ATRC-MRA) on Conformity Assessment for Telecommunications Equipment; †¢ Trans-ASEAN energy networks, which consist of the ASEAN Power Grid and the Trans-ASEAN Gas Pipeline Projects; †¢ Initiative for ASEA N Integration (IAI) focusing on infrastructure, human resource development, information and communications technology, and regional economic integration primarily in the CLMV countries; †¢ Visit ASEAN Campaign and the private sector-led ASEAN Hip-Hop Pass to promote intra-ASEAN tourism; and †¢ Agreement on the ASEAN Food Security Reserve. ASEAN SOCIO-CULTURAL COMMUNITY The ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community envisages a Southeast Asia bonded together in partnership as a community of caring societies and founded on a common regional identity. The Community shall foster cooperation in social development aimed at raising the standard of living of disadvantaged groups and the rural population, and shall seek the active involvement of all sectors of society, in particular women, youth, and local communities. ASEAN shall ensure that its work force shall be prepared for, and benefit from, economic integration by investing more resources for basic and higher education, training, science and technology development, job creation, and social protection. ASEAN shall further intensify cooperation in the area of public health, including in the prevention and control of infectious and communicable diseases. The development and enhancement of human resources is a key strategy for employment generation, alleviating poverty and socio-economic disparities, and ensuring economic growth with equity. Among the on-going activities of ASEAN in this area include the following: †¢ ASEAN Work Programme for Social Welfare, Family, and Population; †¢ ASEAN Work Programme on HIV/AIDS; †¢ ASEAN Work Programme on Community-Based Care for the Elderly; †¢ ASEAN Occupational Safety and Health Network; ASEAN Work Programme on Preparing ASEAN Youth for Sustainable Employment and Other Challenges of Globalization; †¢ ASEAN University Network (AUN) promoting collaboration among seventeen member universities ASEAN; †¢ ASEAN Students Exchange Programme, Youth Cultural Forum, and the ASEAN Young Speakers Forum; †¢ The Annual ASEAN Culture Week, ASEAN Youth Camp and ASEAN Quiz; †¢ ASEAN Media Exchange Programme; and †¢ Framework for Environmentally Sustainable Cities (ESC) and ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution. EXTERNAL RELATIONS: The ASEAN Vision 2020 affirmed an outward-looking ASEAN playing a pivotal role in the international community and advancing ASEAN’s common interests. Building on the Joint Statement on East Asia Cooperation of 1999, cooperation between the Southeast and Northeast Asian countries has accelerated with the holding of an annual summit among the leaders of ASEAN, China, Japan, and the Republic of Korea (ROK) within the ASEAN Plus Three process. ASEAN Plus Three relations continue to expand and deepen in the areas of security dialogue and cooperation, transnational crime, trade and investment, environment, finance and monetary, agriculture and forestry, energy, tourism, health, labor, culture and the arts, science and technology, information and communication technology, social welfare and development, youth, and rural development and poverty eradication. There are now thirteen ministerial-level meetings under the ASEAN plus Three process. Bilateral trading arrangements have been or are being forged between ASEAN Member Countries and China, Japan, and the ROK. These arrangements will serve as the building blocks of an East Asian Free Trade Area as a long term goal. ASEAN continues to develop cooperative relations with its Dialogue Partners, namely, Australia, Canada, China, the European Union, India, Japan, the ROK, New Zealand, the Russian Federation, the United States of America, and the United Nations Development Programme. ASEAN also promotes cooperation with Pakistan in some areas of mutual interest. Consistent with its resolve to enhance cooperation with other developing regions, ASEAN maintains contact with other inter-governmental organizations, namely, the Economic Cooperation Organization, the Gulf Cooperation Council, the Rio Group, the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, the South Pacific Forum, and through the recently established Asian-African Sub-Regional Organization Conference. Most ASEAN Member Countries also participate actively in the activities of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM), and the East Asia-Latin America Forum (EALAF). ASEAN Vision â€Å"2020†: This was said at one of its summit. We, the Heads of State/Government of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, gather today in Kuala Lumpur to reaffirm our commitment to the aims and purposes of the Association as set forth in the Bangkok Declaration of 8 August 1967, in particular to promote regional cooperation in Southeast Asia in the spirit of equality and partnership and thereby contribute towards peace, progress and prosperity in the region. We in ASEAN have created a community of Southeast Asian nations at peace with one another and at peace with the world, rapidly achieving prosperity for our peoples and steadily improving their lives. Our rich diversity has provided the strength and inspiration to us to help one another foster a strong sense of community. We are now a market of around 500 million people with a combined gross domestic product of US$600 billion. We have achieved considerable results in the economic field, such as high economic growth, stability and significant poverty alleviation over the past few years. Members have enjoyed substantial trade and investment flows from significant liberalization measures. We resolve to build upon these achievements. Now, as we approach the 21st century, thirty years after the birth of ASEAN, we gather to chart a vision for ASEAN on the basis of today's realities and prospects in the decades leading to the Year 2020. That vision is of ASEAN as a concert of Southeast Asian nations, outward looking, living in peace, stability and prosperity, bonded together in partnership in dynamic development and in a community of caring societies. ASEAN shall have, by the year 2020, established a peaceful and stable Southeast Asia where each nation is at peace with itself and where the causes for conflict have been eliminated, through abiding respect for justice and the rule of law and through the strengthening of national and regional resilience. STRUCTURES & MECHANISMS: The highest decision-making organ of ASEAN is the Meeting of the ASEAN Heads of State and Government. The ASEAN Summit is convened every year. The ASEAN Ministerial Meeting (Foreign Ministers) is held annually. Ministerial meetings on the following sectors are also held regularly: agriculture and forestry, economics (trade), energy, environment, finance, health, information, investment, labor, law, regional haze, rural development and poverty alleviation, science and technology, social welfare, telecommunications, transnational crime, transportation, tourism, youth. Supporting these ministerial bodies are committees of senior officials, technical working groups and task forces. To support the conduct of ASEAN’s external relations, ASEAN has established committees composed of heads of diplomatic missions in the following capitals: Beijing, Berlin, Brussels, Canberra, Geneva, Islamabad, London, Moscow, New Delhi, New York, Ottawa, Paris, Riyadh, Seoul, Tokyo, Washington D. C. and Wellington. The Secretary-General of ASEAN is appointed on merit and accorded ministerial status. The Secretary-General of ASEAN, who has a five-year term, is mandated to initiate, advise, coordinate, and implement ASEAN activities. The members of the professional staff of the ASEAN Secretariat are appointed on the principle of open recruitment and region-wide competition. ASEAN has several specialized bodies and arrangements promoting inter-governmental cooperation in various fields including the following: ASEAN Agricultural Development Planning Centre, ASEAN-EC Management Centre, ASEAN Centre for Energy, ASEAN Earthquake Information Centre, ASEAN Foundation, ASEAN Poultry Research and Training Centre, ASEAN Regional Centre for Biodiversity Conservation, ASEAN Rural Youth Development Centre, ASEAN Specialized Meteorological Centre, ASEAN Timber A Partnership in Dynamic Development: We resolve to chart a new direction towards the year 2020 called, ASEAN 2020: Partnership in Dynamic Development which will forge closer economic integration within ASEAN. We pledge to sustain ASEAN's high economic performance by building upon the foundation of our existing cooperation efforts, consolidating our achievements, expanding our collective efforts and enhancing mutual assistance. We will create a stable, prosperous and highly competitive ASEAN Economic Region in which there is a free flow of goods, services and investments, a freer flow of capital, equitable economic development and reduced poverty and socio-economic disparities. We resolve, inter-alia, to undertake the following: †¢ Maintain regional macroeconomic and financial stability by promoting closer consultations in macroeconomic and financial policies. Advance economic integration and cooperation by undertaking the following general strategies: fully implement the ASEAN Free Trade Area and accelerate liberalization of trade in services, realize the ASEAN Investment Area by 2010 and free flow of investments by 2020; intensify and expand sub-regional cooperation in existing and new sub-regional growth areas; further consolidate and expand extra-ASEAN regional linkages for mutual benefit cooperate to strengthen the multilateral trading system, and reinforce the role of the business sector as the engine of growth. †¢ Promote a modern and competitive small and medium enterprises (SME) sector in ASEAN which will contribute to the industrial development and efficiency of the region. †¢ Accelerate the free flow of professional and other services in the region. †¢ Promote financial sector liberalization and closer cooperation in money and capital market, tax, insurance and customs matters as well as closer consultations in macroeconomic and financial policies. Accelerate the development of science and technology including information technology by establishing a regional information technology network and centers of excellence for dissemination of and easy access to data and information. †¢ Establish interconnecting arrangements in the field o f energy and utilities for electricity, natural gas and water within ASEAN through the ASEAN Power Grid and a Trans-ASEAN Gas Pipeline and Water Pipeline, and promote cooperation in energy efficiency and conservation, as well as the development of new and renewable energy resources. †¢ Enhance food security and international competitiveness of food, agricultural and forest products, to make ASEAN a leading producer of these products, and promote the forestry sector as a model in forest management, conservation and sustainable development. meet the ever increasing demand for improved infrastructure and communications by developing an integrated and harmonized trans-ASEAN transportation network and harnessing technology advances in telecommunication and information technology, especially in linking the planned information highways/multimedia corridors in ASEAN, promoting open sky policy, developing multi-modal transport, facilitating goods in transit and integrating telecommunica tions networks through greater interconnectivity, coordination of frequencies and mutual recognition of equipment-type approval procedures. †¢ Enhance human resource development in all sectors of the economy through quality education, upgrading of skills and capabilities and training. †¢ Work towards a world class standards and conformance system that will provide a harmonized system to facilitate the free flow of ASEAN trade while meeting health, safety and environmental needs. †¢ Use the ASEAN Foundation as one of the instruments to address issues of unequal economic development, poverty and socioeconomic disparities. promote an ASEAN customs partnership for world class standards and excellence in efficiency, professionalism and service, and uniformity through harmonized procedures, to promote trade and investment and to protect the health and well-being of the ASEAN community, †¢ enhance intra-ASEAN trade and investment in the mineral sector and to contribute towards a technologically competent ASEAN through closer networking and sharing of information on mineral and geosciences as well as to enhance cooperation and partnership with dialogue partners to facilitate the development and transfer of technology in the mineral sector, particularly in the downstream research and the geosciences and to develop appropriate mechanism for these. USE OF THE NAME â€Å"ASEAN†: The Presidium Minister for Political Affairs/Minister for Foreign Affairs of Indonesia, the Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia, the Secretary of Foreign Affairs of the Philippines, the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Singapore, and the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Thailand do hereby declare the establishment of an association for regional cooperation among the countries of Southeast Asia to be known as the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). – ASEAN Declaration, Bangkok, 8 August 1967 I. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS The ASEAN Standing Committee, at its meeting in Manila on 16-18 June 1986, adopted the Guidelines for ASEAN Relations with Non-Governmental Organizations, which included a provision on the use of the name â€Å"ASEAN. † The relevant provision states that, an affiliated NGO â€Å"may use the name ‘ASEAN’ and display the official ASEAN emblem in correspondence, communications, and at its official meetings so long as the displaying of such emblem is non-commercial in nature. † II. PRIVATE SECTOR The ASEAN Standing Committee, at its meeting in Jakarta on 10 January 1979, adopted the Guidelines on the Use of the name â€Å"ASEAN† by the Private Sector. Below are the main points: Member countries shall exercise some measure of control on the use of the name â€Å"ASEAN† by the private sector for business purposes. This administrative control shall be exercised where official registration is required by law for setting up a company, such as a trading company, whether as a corporation or sole proprietorship. Any request for the use of the name â€Å"ASEAN† should satisfy the following conditions: (i)The entity should be regional in character involving all members of ASEAN; (ii)The name â€Å"ASEAN† should not be brought into disrepute by its usage; iii)The entity should be indigenous to ASEAN; (iv)The usage of ASEAN should not have any negative effect on the aims and objectives of ASEAN; The entity should have the sponsorship of any of the ASEAN Nation al Secretariats. ASEAN Regional Forum: [pic] ASEAN Regional Forum: —  ASEAN countries —  Other ASEAN Regional Forum participants. ASEAN regularly conducts dialogue meetings with other countries and an organization, collectively known as the ASEAN dialogue partners during the ASEAN Regional Forum(ARF). The ASEAN Regional Forum is an informal multilateral dialogue of 25 members that seeks to address security issues in the Asia-Pacific region. The ARF met for the first time in 1994. The current participants in the ARF are as follows: ASEAN, Australia, Canada, People's Republic of China, European Union, India, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Mongolia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Russia, East Timor, and the United States. Bangladesh was added to ARF as the 26th member, starting from July 28, 2006. Outlook of ASEAN: Realizing the vision of ASEAN’s founding fathers of an association of all Southeast Asian countries is thus hardly the end of ASEAN history. It is rather a call for a renewed commitment to broader regional solidarity among the peoples of Southeast Asia. ASEAN has learned to draw strength from unity not only among governments but also among its diverse peoples. The ASEAN experience and the ASEAN process must reach out to all spectra of our societies,† said former Foreign Minister Prachaub Chaiyasan of Thailand in 1997. â€Å"Through ASEAN this region will become a grassroots-supported and close-knit community bound together no t only by common interests but by shared values, identity and aspirations among our peoples. † ASEAN faces the future with confidence. Its strong foundation and remarkable achievements will serve Southeast Asia well as it pursues higher goals in the new millennium. ASEAN’s leaders have reaffirmed that co-operative peace and shared prosperity should be the association’s basic goals. Towards these goals ASEAN shall remain a driving force in building a more predictable and constructive pattern of relationships among nations in the Asia-Pacific region. ASEAN will move towards greater economic integration, emphasizing sustainable and equitable growth. ASEAN will nourish a caring and cohesive Southeast Asian community, whose strength lies in fostering a common regional identity and a shared vision of the future. Overview: The ASEAN declaration of 1967 exhorts the association to attain its economic, social and cultural aims through â€Å"joint endeavors† and â€Å"active collaboration and mutual assistance. † Regarding its political objective of regional peace and stability, however, the Declaration contains no equivalent exhortation. It speaks only of â€Å"respect for justice and the rule of law† and â€Å"adherence to the principles of the United Nations Charter. † It makes no impassioned call for the ASEAN member states to take common political positions. The restraint with which ASEAN’s founders expressed the political aim of their brainchild was understandable. They did not want their intentions to be misunderstood. They did not want ASEAN to be mistaken for a military grouping among political allies-as some of its predecessors had been. Moreover, at the time of ASEAN’s conception, Southeast Asia was beset by instability aggravated by underdevelopment. The ASEAN pioneer states themselves were just beginning to learn to trust one another, while nursing he hangover of bitter disputes of recent years. The newborn ASEAN was, therefore, presented as a sub regional grouping for economic, social and cultural cooperation. But security concerns and political purposes were never far from th e ASEAN founders’ intentions. As a key figure in ASEAN diplomacy, former Indonesian Foreign Minister Ali Alatas has pointed out, â€Å"The truth is that politics attended ASEAN at its birth. It was the convergence in political outlook among the five original members, their shared convictions on national priority objectives and on how best to secure these objectives in the evolving strategic environment of East Asia which impelled them to form ASEAN. ASEAN spent almost the whole first decade of its existence developing and refining the concepts that form the basis of its work and methods of cooperation. In those early years its ministerial and other meetings became occasions for fostering trust and goodwill, for developing the habit of working together informally and openly. In the process ASEAN leaders realized that their countries could never attain national stability and socioeconomic development if Southeast Asia-afflicted with strife and cold War rivalry-remained in poli tical turmoil. The ASEAN member states strove for resilience, both individually as nations and collectively as a sub regional grouping; for they knew the association would not amount to much if external powers regularly intervened in Southeast Asian affairs. At the First ASEAN Summit in Bali in February 1976, the member countries signed the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia, which spelled out the basic principles for their relations with one another and the conduct of the association’s programme for cooperation: †¢ Mutual respect for the independence, sovereignty, equality, territorial integrity and national identity of all nations; †¢ The right of every state to lead its national existence free from external interference, subversion or coercion; †¢ Noninterference in the internal affairs of one another; †¢ Settlement of differences or disputes by peaceful means; †¢ Renunciation of the threat or use of force; and †¢ Effective cooperation among themselves. The treaty envisaged these principles as the foundation of a strong Southeast Asian community. It stated that ASEAN political and security dialogue and cooperation should aim to promote regional peace and stability by enhancing regional resilience. And this resilience shall be achieved by cooperation in all fields among the member countries. Following these principles and guidelines, Southeast Asia embarked on a journey towards regional solidarity that has been steady and sure. Through political dialogue and confidence building, ASEAN has prevented occasional bilateral tensions from escalating into confrontation among its members. And by 1999 the vision of an ASEAN is including all the countries of Southeast Asia as members had been achieved. Achievements in Political Collaboration: Since 1967 ASEAN has forged major political accords that have contributed greatly to regional peace and stability, and to its relations with other countries, regions and organizations. Foremost among these are: Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality. On 27 November 1971 the foreign ministers of the then five ASEAN members met in Kuala Lumpur and signed the Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality (ZOPFAN) Declaration. It commits all ASEAN members to â€Å"exert efforts to secure the recognition of and respect for Southeast Asia as a Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality, free from any manner of interference by outside powers,† and to â€Å"make concerted efforts to broaden the areas of cooperation, which would contribute to their strength, solidarity and closer relationship. ZOPFAN recognizes â€Å"the right of every state, large or small, to lead its national existence free from outside interference in its internal affairs as this interference will adversely affect its freedom, independence and integrity. † Another five years passed before the next major development in political cooperation came about-the First ASEAN Summit in Bali, when the ASEAN leaders signed three major documents: the Declaration of ASEAN Concord, the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia, and the Agreement Establishing the ASEAN Secretariat. Declaration of ASEAN Concord. Departing from the more circumspect Bangkok Declaration, the Declaration of ASEAN Concord stated for the first time that the member countries would expand political cooperation. It also adopted principles for regional stability and a programme of action for political cooperation. The programme called for holding ASEAN summits among the heads of government; signing the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia; settling intraregional disputes â€Å"by peaceful means as soon as possible†; improving the ASEAN machinery to strengthen political cooperation; studying how to develop judicial cooperation including the possibility of an ASEAN extradition treaty; and strengthening political solidarity by promoting the harmonization of views, coordinating positions and, where possible and desirable, taking common action. Treaty of Amity and Cooperation (TAC) in Southeast Asia. TAC raised the provisions of the Kuala Lumpur Declaration to the level of a treaty to which other Southeast Asian countries could accede and with which the nonregional countries could associate themselves. The treaty enshrines the following principles: mutual respect for one another’s sovereignty; noninterference in internal affairs; the peaceful settlement of intraregional d isputes; and effective cooperation. The treaty also provides for a code of conduct for the peaceful settlement of disputes. And it mandates the establishment of a high council made up of ministerial representatives from the parties as a dispute-settlement mechanism. To this day, TAC remains the only indigenous regional diplomatic instrument providing a mechanism and processes for the peaceful settlement of disputes. Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone. At the ASEAN Summit in Bangkok on 15 December 1995, the leaders of all the ten Southeast ASEAN countries signed the Treaty on the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone (SEANWFZ). As a key component of ZOPFAN, the SEANWFZ treaty ex-presses ASEAN’s determination to contribute to-wards general and complete nuclear disarmament and the promotion of international peace and security. It also aims to protect the region from environmental pollution and the hazards posed by radio-active waste and other toxic materials. The SEANWFZ treaty came into force on 27 March 1997. ASEAN is now negotiating with the five nuclear-weapon states on the terms of their accession to the protocol which lays down their commitments under the treaty. ASEAN has put in place the SEANWFZ Commission and the Executive Committee of the commission to oversee implementation of the treaty’s provisions and ensure compliance with them. The association adopted procedural and financial rules governing the work of the treaty bodies at the seco0nd meeting of the SEANWFZ Commission in Bangkok in July 2000. Settlement of the Cambodian Conflict. One of the most important chapters in the history of ASEAN diplomacy took place during the Cambodian conflict. The ASEAN-sponsored resolutions at the UN General Assembly, which called for a durable and comprehensive political settlement in Cambodia, received consistent support from the international community. With Indonesia as interlocutor, ASEAN maintained its dialogue with all parties to the conflict. This eventually led to the Jakarta Informal Meetings at which the four Cambodian factions discussed peace and national reconciliation. The process proved to be protracted, requiring the help of many states and the United Nations. It extended to the early 1990s, culminating in the 19-nation Paris Conference on Cambodia, which was chaired by France and Indonesia. On 23 October 1991 the Paris Conference on Cambodia produced the Comprehensive Political Settlement of the Cambodian Conflict. This settlement paved the way for the formation of the Cambodian Supreme National Council, in which four factions participated, and the holding of elections supervised by the United Nations Transitional Authority on Cambodia. Nineteen ninety-nine will be remembered as the year when the vision of ASEAN’s founders to build an association comprising all the Southeast Asian countries was fully realized. The admission of Cambodia to ASEAN on 30 April 1999 in Ha Noi completed the association’s efforts towards regional cohesion, 32 years after the original five members-Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines and Thailand-first got together. Insular and peninsular Southeast Asia and all of mainland Southeast Asia are now joined in one association. The region is no longer divided between ASEAN and non-ASEAN, between mainland and maritime Southeast Asia. Recent Issues and Concerns: It is in ASEAN’s ability and readiness to resolve political differences affecting its members and other countries in the Asia-Pacific region that the association’s commitment to political co-operation is put to the test. More often than not, that commitment has been affirmed and the ASEAN approach to solving potentially explosive issues vindicated. These issues include territorial and jurisdictional disputes in the South China Sea; self-determination for East Timor; nuclear proliferation in Northeast Asia and South Asia; weapons of mass destruction; and the impact of globalization. South China Sea. Like many other parts of the world, Southeast Asia faces territorial disputes among its members and nearby states. In these disputes ASEAN has consistently pursued a policy of cooperation in seeking the peaceful settlement of differences. In 1992, recognizing that any conflict in the South China Sea could directly affect peace and stability in the region, ASEAN issued a declaration â€Å"urging all parties concerned to exercise restraint in order to create a positive climate for the eventual resolution of all disputes. ASEAN further â€Å"emphasized the necessity to resolve all sovereignty and jurisdictional issues about the South China Sea by peaceful means, without resort to force. † The Manila Declaration of 1992, which pr oposed a modus vivendi in the South China Sea, represents one of the most remarkable demonstrations of political solidarity among ASEAN members on strategic issues of common concern. On the suggestion of ASEAN, ASEAN and China have been working on a Code of Conduct to govern state behavior in the South China Sea. The ASEAN-China Senior Officials’ Consultations Working Group on the Code of Conduct in the South China Sea met four times this year to negotiate a working draft code of conduct covering principles and norms of state-to-state relations, peaceful settlement of disputes and cooperation. East Timor. ASEAN supported the implementation of the agreement between Indonesia and Portugal on the question of East Timor and the 5 May 1999 agreements between the United Nations and the Indonesian and Portuguese governments about the modalities for the popular consultations of the East Timorese. The consultations were held on 30 August 1999. As violence rocked the territory following the referendum, the ASEAN leaders who were in Auckland for the APEC Economic Leaders’ Meeting gathered to address the problem. Some of them agreed to contribute, at great expense, to the International Force for East Timor, which was formed upon Indonesia’s invitation. The UN Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) was subsequently set up, with a Filipino general taking over the command of the peacekeeping force. A Thai general has since succeeded him. Other ASEAN members have been extending humanitarian and other forms of assistance to East Timor. ASEAN has called on the international community to help East Timor achieve peace, stability and prosperity during its transition to full independence, which would contribute to the stability of Southeast Asia. Following the separation of East Timor from Indonesia, ASEAN has declared its position that a united, democratic and economically prosperous Indonesia is basic to the maintenance of regional security. In this context, the association emphasized its support for Indonesia’s territorial integrity. Northeast Asia. At the Seventh ASEAN Regional Forum in July 2000, the participation for the first time of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea in the ARF process was welcomed-a significant step in the rapid evolution of the situation on the Korean Peninsula and thus in the security environment of the Asia-Pacific region. North Korea’s ARF membership provides additional opportunities for dialogue and exchanges between North Korea and those ARF countries with key roles in the Korean situation. ASEAN expressed support for the historic summit between the North and South Korean leaders, held in Pyongyang on 13-15 June 2000. It also commended the 15 June North-South Joint Declaration, the first agreement signed at the highest level since the division of the Korean Peninsula in 1945. Challenges of globalization. The Seventh ASEAN Regional Forum observed that although the security outlook for the region remains positive, uncertainties and challenges-particularly those posed by globalization-would increasingly require ARF’s attention. The Seventh ARF also considered the economic, social and human components of security and the need to promote regional cooperation in dealing with regional security issues. It discussed both the positive effects and the repercussions of globalization, including greater economic interdependence among nations and the multiplication of security threats like transnational crime. In responding to globalization, ARF felt it necessary for nations to strengthen their individual and collective capacities to meet the challenges affecting their common security. ARF has reaffirmed the need for Southeast Asian countries to continue efforts, through dialogue and cooperation at national and international levels, in dealing with the economic, social and political impacts of globalization so as to ensure sustained economic and social development. ASEAN and intra-ASEAN relations: weathering the storm? In April 1999, ASEAN formally admitted Cambodia thereby completing its declared goal of grouping together all ten Southeast Asian countries under its umbrella. This was the culminating event in the latest phase of ASEAN's enlargement. This process, however, had been problematic from the start. The entry of Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Vietnam without any clear criteria for admission has raised questions regarding the preparedness of these countries to participate in ASEAN. More importantly, it led to strains in ASEAN's relations with its dialogue partners over the legitimacy of some of the governments in power in these countries. The was further complicated by the economic upheaval caused by the financial crisis which struck Southeast Asia in 1997. The impact of these events on ASEAN has put into question the association's growing role as a leading player in Asia-Pacific affairs. More importantly, it has raised issues which are central to ASEAN's continued existence. Bibliography: 1. www. google. com. 2. www. ASEANsec. org. 3. Introductory Managerial Economics-II (By D. M. Mithani)