Monday, September 30, 2019
Today is my first day at the UniKL City Campus. After the registration session at the Multipurpose Hall, I need to go to the Male Hostel and later on to the Administrative Building. So, I asked one of the security guards on duty the way to both places. He explained to me the routes to the Male Hostel and the Administrative Building. First, from the guard Post 1, I must go straight and turn left into Jalan Teknologi. Then, I need go straight until I found Multipurpose Hall at my left and at the junction; I must turn left into Jalan Teknikal. After that, I must go straight until I found the classroom and laboratory at my left and turn left into small path at the end of classroom building. Then I need to turn right to park my car at student parking area and I will found the Male Hostel in front of the student parking area but I need to cross restricted area. After I check in at Male Hostel, I need to go to Administrative Building to settle out my document. From student parking area, I need to turn to small path and turn right into Jalan Teknikal. Then, I must going straight and turn right at the end of Jalan Teknikal into Jalan Teknologi. Then, I must take the first junction and I will found Multipurpose Hall at my left. When I move to in front, I will found the classroom and laboratory at my right and the Administrative Building at my left.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Chapter 110 Jabba stared blankly at the printout Soshi had just handed him. Pale, he wiped his forehead on his sleeve. Ã¢â¬Å"Director, we have no choice. We've got to kill power to the databank.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Unacceptable,Ã¢â¬ Fontaine replied. Ã¢â¬Å"The results would be devastating.Ã¢â¬ Jabba knew the director was right. There were over three thousand ISDN connections tying into the NSA databank from all over the world. Every day military commanders accessed up-to-the-instant satellite photos of enemy movement. Lockheed engineers downloaded compartmentalized blueprints of new weaponry. Field operatives accessed mission updates. The NSA databank was the backbone of thousands of U.S. government operations. Shutting it down without warning would cause life-and-death intelligence blackouts all over the globe. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm aware of the implications, sir,Ã¢â¬ Jabba said, Ã¢â¬Å"but we have no choice.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Explain yourself,Ã¢â¬ Fontaine ordered. He shot a quick glance at Susan standing beside him on the podium. She seemed miles away. Jabba took a deep breath and wiped his brow again. From the look on his face, it was clear to the group on the podium that they were not going to like what he had to say. Ã¢â¬Å"This worm,Ã¢â¬ Jabba began. Ã¢â¬Å"This worm is not an ordinary degenerative cycle. It's a selective cycle. In other words, it's a worm with taste.Ã¢â¬ Brinkerhoff opened his mouth to speak, but Fontaine waved him off. Ã¢â¬Å"Most destructive applications wipe a databank clean, Ã¢â¬Å"Jabba continued, Ã¢â¬Å"but this one is more complex. It deletes only those files that fall within certain parameters.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You mean it won't attack the whole databank?Ã¢â¬ Brinkerhoff asked hopefully. Ã¢â¬Å"That's good, right?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No!Ã¢â¬ Jabba exploded. Ã¢â¬Å"It's bad! It's very fucking bad!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Cool it!Ã¢â¬ Fontaine ordered. Ã¢â¬Å"What parameters is this worm looking for? Military? Covert ops?Ã¢â¬ Jabba shook his head. He eyed Susan, who was still distant, and then Jabba's eyes rose to meet the director's. Ã¢â¬Å"Sir, as you know, anyone who wants to tie into this databank from the outside has to pass a series of security gates before they're admitted.Ã¢â¬ Fontaine nodded. The databank's access hierarchies were brilliantly conceived; authorized personnel could dial in via the Internet and World Wide Web. Depending on their authorization sequence, they were permitted access to their own compartmentalized zones. Ã¢â¬Å"Because we're tied to the global Internet, Ã¢â¬Å"Jabba explained, Ã¢â¬Å"hackers, foreign governments, and EFF sharks circle this databank twenty-four hours a day and try to break in.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes,Ã¢â¬ Fontaine said, Ã¢â¬Å"and twenty-four hours a day, our security filters keep them out. What's your point?Ã¢â¬ Jabba gazed down at the printout. Ã¢â¬Å"My point is this. Tankado's worm is not targeting our data.Ã¢â¬ He cleared his throat. Ã¢â¬Å"It's targeting our security filters.Ã¢â¬ Fontaine blanched. Apparently he understood the implications-this worm was targeting the filters that kept the NSA databank confidential. Without filters, all of the information in the databank would become accessible to everyone on the outside. Ã¢â¬Å"We need to shut down,Ã¢â¬ Jabba repeated. Ã¢â¬Å"In about an hour, every third grader with a modem is going to have top U.S. security clearance.Ã¢â¬ Fontaine stood a long moment without saying a word. Jabba waited impatiently and finally turned to Soshi. Ã¢â¬Å"Soshi! VR! NOW!Ã¢â¬ Soshi dashed off. Jabba relied on VR often. In most computer circles, VR meant Ã¢â¬Å"virtual reality,Ã¢â¬ but at the NSA it meant vis-rep-visual representation. In a world full of technicians and politicians all having different levels of technical understanding, a graphic representation was often the only way to make a point; a single plummeting graph usually aroused ten times the reaction inspired by volumes of spreadsheets. Jabba knew a VR of the current crisis would make its point instantly. Ã¢â¬Å"VR!Ã¢â¬ Soshi yelled from a terminal at the back of the room. A computer-generated diagram flashed to life on the wall before them. Susan gazed up absently, detached from the madness around her. Everyone in the room followed Jabba's gaze to the screen. The diagram before them resembled a bull's-eye. In the center was a red circle marked data. Around the center were five concentric circles of differing thickness and color. The outermost circle was faded, almost transparent. Ã¢â¬Å"We've got a five-tier level of defense,Ã¢â¬ Jabba explained. Ã¢â¬Å"A primary Bastion Host, two sets of packet filters for FTP and X-eleven, a tunnel block, and finally a PEM-based authorization window right off the Truffle project. The outside shield that's disappearing represents the exposed host. It's practically gone. Within the hour, all five shields will follow. After that, the world pours in. Every byte of NSA data becomes public domain.Ã¢â¬ Fontaine studied the VR, his eyes smoldering. Brinkerhoff let out a weak whimper. Ã¢â¬Å"This worm can open our databank to the world?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Child's play for Tankado,Ã¢â¬ Jabba snapped. Ã¢â¬Å"Gauntlet was our fail-safe. Strathmore blew it.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"It's an act of war,Ã¢â¬ Fontaine whispered, an edge in his voice. Jabba shook his head. Ã¢â¬Å"I really doubt Tankado ever meant for it to go this far. I suspect he intended to be around to stop it.Ã¢â¬ Fontaine gazed up at the screen and watched the first of the five walls disappear entirely. Ã¢â¬Å"Bastion Host is toast!Ã¢â¬ a technician yelled from the back of the room. Ã¢â¬Å"Second shield's exposed!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"We've got to start shutting down,Ã¢â¬ Jabba urged. Ã¢â¬Å"From the looks of the VR, we've got about forty-five minutes. Shutdown is a complex process.Ã¢â¬ It was true. The NSA databank had been constructed in such a way as to ensure it would never lose power-accidentally or if attacked. Multiple fail-safes for phone and power were buried in reinforced steel canisters deep underground, and in addition to the feeds from within the NSA complex, there were multiple backups off main public grids. Shutting down involved a complex series of confirmations and protocols-significantly more complicated than the average nuclear submarine missile launch. Ã¢â¬Å"We have time,Ã¢â¬ Jabba said, Ã¢â¬Å"if we hurry. Manual shutdown should take about thirty minutes.Ã¢â¬ Fontaine continued staring up at the VR, apparently pondering his options. Ã¢â¬Å"Director!Ã¢â¬ Jabba exploded. Ã¢â¬Å"When these firewalls fall, every user on the planet will be issued top-security clearance! And I'm talking upper level! Records of covert ops! Overseas agents! Names and locations of everyone in the federal witness protection program! Launch code confirmations! We must shut down! Now!Ã¢â¬ The director seemed unmoved. Ã¢â¬Å"There must be some other way.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes,Ã¢â¬ Jabba spat, Ã¢â¬Å"there is! The kill-code! But the only guy who knows it happens to be dead!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"How about brute force?Ã¢â¬ Brinkerhoff blurted. Ã¢â¬Å"Can we guess the kill-code?Ã¢â¬ Jabba threw up his arms. Ã¢â¬Å"For Christ sake! Kill-codes are like encryption keys-random! Impossible to guess! If you think you can type 600 trillion entries in the next forty-five minutes, be my guest!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The kill-code's in Spain,Ã¢â¬ Susan offered weakly. Everyone on the podium turned. It was the first thing she had said in a long time. Susan looked up, bleary-eyed. Ã¢â¬Å"Tankado gave it away when he died.Ã¢â¬ Everyone looked lost. Ã¢â¬Å"The pass-keyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Susan shivered as she spoke. Ã¢â¬Å"Commander Strathmore sent someone to find it.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"And?Ã¢â¬ Jabba demanded. Ã¢â¬Å"Did Strathmore's man find it?Ã¢â¬ Susan tried to fight it, but the tears began to flow. Ã¢â¬Å"Yes,Ã¢â¬ she choked. Ã¢â¬Å"I think so.Ã¢â¬ Chapter 111 An earsplitting yell cut through the control room. Ã¢â¬Å"Sharks!Ã¢â¬ It was Soshi. Jabba spun toward the VR. Two thin lines had appeared outside the concentric circles. They looked like sperm trying to breach a reluctant egg. Ã¢â¬Å"Blood's in the water, folks!Ã¢â¬ Jabba turned back to the director. Ã¢â¬Å"I need a decision. Either we start shutting down, or we'll never make it. As soon as these two intruders see the Bastion Host is down, they'll send up a war cry.Ã¢â¬ Fontaine did not respond. He was deep in thought. Susan Fletcher's news of the pass-key in Spain seemed promising to him. He shot a glance toward Susan in the back of the room. She appeared to be in her own world, collapsed in a chair, her head buried in her hands. Fontaine was unsure exactly what had triggered the reaction, but whatever it was, he had no time for it now. Ã¢â¬Å"I need a decision!Ã¢â¬ Jabba demanded. Ã¢â¬Å"Now!Ã¢â¬ Fontaine looked up. He spoke calmly. Ã¢â¬Å"Okay, you've got one. We are not shutting down. We're going to wait.Ã¢â¬ Jabba's jaw dropped. Ã¢â¬Å"What? But that's-Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"A gamble,Ã¢â¬ Fontaine interrupted. Ã¢â¬Å"A gamble we just might win.Ã¢â¬ He took Jabba's cellular and punched a few keys. Ã¢â¬Å"Midge,Ã¢â¬ he said. Ã¢â¬Å"It's Leland Fontaine. Listen carefullyÃ¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ Chapter 112 Ã¢â¬Å"You better know what the hell you're doing, Director,Ã¢â¬ Jabba hissed. Ã¢â¬Å"We're about to lose shut-down capability.Ã¢â¬ Fontaine did not respond. As if on cue, the door at the back of the control room opened, and Midge came dashing in. She arrived breathless at the podium. Ã¢â¬Å"Director! The switchboard is patching it through right now!Ã¢â¬ Fontaine turned expectantly toward the screen on the front wall. Fifteen seconds later the screen crackled to life. The image on screen was snowy and stilted at first, and gradually grew sharper. It was a QuickTime digital transmission-only five frames per second. The image revealed two men. One was pale with a buzz cut, the other a blond all-American. They were seated facing the camera like two newscasters waiting to go on the air. Ã¢â¬Å"What the hell is this?Ã¢â¬ Jabba demanded. Ã¢â¬Å"Sit tight,Ã¢â¬ Fontaine ordered. The men appeared to be inside a van of some sort. Electronic cabling hung all around them. The audio connection crackled to life. Suddenly there was background noise. Ã¢â¬Å"Inbound audio,Ã¢â¬ a technician called from behind them. Ã¢â¬Å"Five seconds till two-way.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Who are they?Ã¢â¬ Brinkerhoff asked, uneasily. Ã¢â¬Å"Eye in the sky,Ã¢â¬ Fontaine replied, gazing up at the two men he had sent to Spain. It had been a necessary precaution. Fontaine had believed in almost every aspect of Strathmore's plan-the regrettable but necessary removal of Ensei Tankado, rewriting Digital Fortress-it was all solid. But there was one thing that made Fontaine nervous: the use of Hulohot. Hulohot was skilled, but he was a mercenary. Was he trustworthy? Would he take the pass-key for himself? Fontaine wanted Hulohot covered, just incase, and he had taken the requisite measures. Chapter 113 Ã¢â¬Å"Absolutely not!Ã¢â¬ The man with the buzz cut yelled into the camera. Ã¢â¬Å"We have orders! We report to Director Leland Fontaine and Leland Fontaine only!Ã¢â¬ Fontaine looked mildly amused. Ã¢â¬Å"You don't know who I am, do you?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Doesn't matter, does it?Ã¢â¬ the blond fired hotly. Ã¢â¬Å"Let me explain,Ã¢â¬ Fontaine interjected. Ã¢â¬Å"Let me explain something right now.Ã¢â¬ Seconds later, the two men were red-faced, spilling their guts to the director of the National Security Agency. Ã¢â¬Å"D-director,Ã¢â¬ the blond stammered, Ã¢â¬Å"I'm Agent Coliander. This is Agent Smith.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Fine,Ã¢â¬ Fontaine said. Ã¢â¬Å"Just brief us.Ã¢â¬ At the back of the room, Susan Fletcher sat and fought the suffocating loneliness that pressed down around her. Eyes closed, and ears ringing, she wept. Her body had gone numb. The mayhem in the control room faded to a dull murmur. The gathering on the podium listened, restless, as Agent Smith began his briefing. Ã¢â¬Å"On your orders, Director,Ã¢â¬ Smith began, Ã¢â¬Å"we've been here in Seville for two days, trailing Mr. Ensei Tankado.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Tell me about the kill,Ã¢â¬ Fontaine said impatiently. Smith nodded. Ã¢â¬Å"We observed from inside the van at about fifty meters. The kill was smooth. Hulohot was obviously a pro. But afterward his directive went awry. Company arrived. Hulohot never got the item.Ã¢â¬ Fontaine nodded. The agents had contacted him in South America with news that something had gone wrong, so Fontaine had cut his trip short. Coliander took over. Ã¢â¬Å"We stayed with Hulohot as you ordered. But he never made a move for the morgue. Instead, he picked up the trail of some other guy. Looked private. Coat and tie.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Private?Ã¢â¬ Fontaine mused. It sounded like a Strathmore play-wisely keeping the NSA out of it. Ã¢â¬Å"FTP filters failing!Ã¢â¬ a technician called out. Ã¢â¬Å"We need the item,Ã¢â¬ Fontaine pressed. Ã¢â¬Å"Where is Hulohot now?Ã¢â¬ Smith looked over his shoulder. Ã¢â¬Å"WellÃ¢â¬ ¦ he's with us, sir.Ã¢â¬ Fontaine exhaled. Ã¢â¬Å"Where?Ã¢â¬ It was the best new she'd heard all day. Smith reached toward the lens to make an adjustment. The camera swept across the inside of the van to reveal two limp bodies propped against the back wall. Both were motionless. One was a large man with twisted wire-rim glasses. The other was young with a shock of dark hair and a bloody shirt. Ã¢â¬Å"Hulohot's the one on the left,Ã¢â¬ Smith offered. Ã¢â¬Å"Hulohot's dead?Ã¢â¬ the director demanded. Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, sir.Ã¢â¬ Fontaine knew there would be time for explanations later. He glanced up at the thinning shields. Ã¢â¬Å"Agent Smith,Ã¢â¬ he said slowly and clearly. Ã¢â¬Å"The item. I need it.Ã¢â¬ Smith looked sheepish. Ã¢â¬Å"Sir, we still have no idea what the item is. We're on a need-to-know.Ã¢â¬ Chapter 114 Ã¢â¬Å"Then look again!Ã¢â¬ Fontaine declared. The director watched in dismay as the stilted image of the agents searched the two limp bodies in the van for a list of random numbers and letters. Jabba was pale. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh my God, they can't find it. We're dead!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Losing FTP filters!Ã¢â¬ a voice yelled. Ã¢â¬Å"Third shield's exposed!Ã¢â¬ There was a new flurry of activity. On the front screen, the agent with the buzz cut held out his arms in defeat. Ã¢â¬Å"Sir, the pass-key isn't here. We've searched both men. Pockets. Clothing. Wallets. No sign at all. Hulohot was wearing a Monocle computer, and we've checked that too. It doesn't look like he ever transmitted anything remotely resembling random characters-only a list of kills.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Dammit!Ã¢â¬ Fontaine seethed, suddenly losing his cool. Ã¢â¬Å"It's got to be there! Keep looking!Ã¢â¬ Jabba had apparently seen enough-Fontaine had gambled and lost. Jabba took over. The huge Sys-Sec descended from his pulpit like a storm off a mountain. He swept through his army of programmers calling out commands. Ã¢â¬Å"Access auxiliary kills! Start shutting it down! Do it now!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"We'll never make it!Ã¢â¬ Soshi yelled. Ã¢â¬Å"We need a half hour! By the time we shut down, it will be too late!Ã¢â¬ Jabba opened his mouth to reply, but he was cut short by a scream of agony from the back of the room. Everyone turned. Like an apparition, Susan Fletcher rose from her crouched position in the rear of the chamber. Her face was white, her eyes transfixed on the freeze-frame of David Becker, motionless and bloody, propped up on the floor of the van. Ã¢â¬Å"You killed him!Ã¢â¬ she screamed. Ã¢â¬Å"You killed him!Ã¢â¬ She stumbled toward the image and reached out. Ã¢â¬Å"DavidÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Everyone looked up in confusion. Susan advanced, still calling, her eyes never leaving the projection of David's body. Ã¢â¬Å"David.Ã¢â¬ She gasped, staggering forward. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, DavidÃ¢â¬ ¦ how could they-Ã¢â¬Å" Fontaine seemed lost. Ã¢â¬Å"You know this man?Ã¢â¬ Susan swayed unsteadily as she passed the podium. She stopped a few feet in front of the enormous projection and stared up, bewildered and numb, calling over and over to the man she loved.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Animal Testing Essay Animal TestingThis theme song to a popular cartoon is a farce dealing with experiments carried out on animals. In the cartoon one mouse is made very smart and wants to take over the world while the other is clearly not as smart. While the cartoon makes jokes, the reality is that mice and other animals re being used for medical tests every day. For some people this testing brings up ethical questions. One of the biggest questions: is it really necessary to take the lives of animals in the name of science and for the betterment of humanity? For animal rights activists, like People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), the answer is no. PETA pressures labs into halting experiments because they believe that animals are not to be used by humans for food, clothing, entertainment, or to experiment on (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals 1). Its stance is that any testing is painful, inhumane, and unnecessary when alternatives are available. The PETA website says that animals, like humans, have interests that cannot be sacrificed or traded away simply because it might benefit others. (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals 2-3). Essentially, PETA is of the opinion that animals and humans should have identical rights. In their press releases PETA puts out pictures of rabbits with open flesh wounds and dogs with rashes on their skinsall in an attempt to disgust people into sympathy for their cause. In actuality the number of lab animals used has been cut in half in the last 25 years (James-Enger 254). Of the animals used, 90 percent are rats and mice (James-Enger 1). Moreover, 11 million animals die each year in animal shelters (Americans for Medical Progress 2) and an astounding 95 percent of the animals that die in America do so from human consumption (James-Enger 254). The reason that animal testing is appropriate is that there are regulations in place to minimize testing and pain, the alternatives are insufficient for now, and most importantly the information obtained from experimentation is irreplaceable. While animal rights groups such as PETA advocate abolishing all animal testing that inflicts pain on animals, proponents of testing cite laws and regulations which minimize pain and discomfort. PETAs position is based on the belief that humans are not superior to animals (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals). The vice president of the Humans Society of the United States (HSUS), an animal rights group that is nearly as extreme as PETA, has been quoted as saying the life of an ant and that of my child should be granted equal consideration (Americans for Medical Progress 2). If, as PETA and HSUS say, animal and human life is equal, then putting an animal through any pain is immoral. However, there are laws in place to minimize discomfort and inhumane treatment. The laws limit the amount of distress and pain an animal is subjected to. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), the body that governs animal test ing, must approve all tests (United States Department of Agriculture 2). The USDA must also authorize the numbers and types of animals experimented on (United States Department of Agriculture 2). Tests can no longer be performed if conclusive data is already available. In 1991 it was discovered that Procter and Gamble had performed experiments on 300 guinea pigs when the data the tests was to obtain was already available (Animal Testing by the Cosmetic Industry 2). This is just one of the situations that newer animal testing legislation would have prevented or at least deterred. A fifty-point criterion for assessing pain is in place (United States Department of Agriculture 3). These points include everything from vocalization of pain to apparent depression. If there is no clear criteria then it is assumed that procedures that cause pain in humans also cause pain in animals (United States Department of Agriculture 50). When an animal must be restrained it is to be limited to brief pe riods of around three minutes (United States Department of Agriculture 3). This is similar to the procedure followed when a doctor holds a child to administer a vaccination shot. For all surgeries and painful tests, sedatives and anesthetics must be utilized (United States Department of Agriculture 49). If the test will leave the animal permanently damaged, euthanasia must be administered before the anesthetic wears off (United States Department of Agriculture 48). For humans this topic is still being debated, but animals are put to sleep every day when an owner or veterinarian decides the quality of the animals life will be too low for it to go on living. These few but important changes in animal research legislation have aided in improving animal welfare. PETA believes that the benefits of animal research do not outweigh the costs when alternatives are available; proponents argue that those alternatives are not effective. PETAs stance is that animal life is too valuable to risk on experimentation especially when there are alternatives, such as false human skin grown in culture, computer programs, and using human subjects. Taking a few skin cells and growing them into small squares of skin produces the false human skin. This piece of skin can be used to test irritation reactions to different chemicals. It is being used in the cosmetic industry, which has all but ceased animal testing. One problem with the false skin however is that it can only be exposed to water-soluble chemicals or it suffers extreme damage (D.E. 168). Furthermore, it currently contains no melanocytes, the chemicals that give skin its color, or immune cells (D.E. 168). It is not known how or if these substances effect any laboratory setting, but it is desirable for any experiment to mimic real life situations as closely as possible. Another alternative to actual animal experimentation is using computer simulations. These programs are like encyclopedias of chemical information. They can only run simulations based on information on chemicals and reactions that are already known. This is an obvious problem with this alternative. Computer simulation software cannot accurately predict the effects of enough situations and theoretical chemical combinations to be heavily relied on. What it comes down to is that there currently is no viable replacement for live, responsive cells. Jack H. Botting and Adrian R. Morrison point out that there are no basic differences between the physiology of laboratory animals and humans (Botting, Morrison 85). These similarities are what scientists need for experiments to be accurate. The matches are never perfect, but animal experiments are a good place for researchers to start looking for answers to questions that are important to human health care. Another proposed alternative to animal testing is to use human subjects. PETA suggests using people who have particular ailments who would be willing to participate in experiments. The problem with this alternative is that it is not scientifically sound. When conducting a scientific experiment, all variables must be controlled, and running tests on random human subjects does not give reliable results. Assuming that a researcher could find enough people to run an experiment, there would be too many extraneous variables, such as the subjects environment, genes, and other pre-existing conditions. With lab animals the complete medical history is known, the entire life of each animal is documented. Also they are selectively bred to produce genetically similar subjects. Simply put, lab animals are a cheap, reliable source of information. The benefits gained from animal testing are too widespread to ignore. Everyday life has been changed for the better because of this testing. As 1990 Nobel Prize Laureate Joseph E. Murray, M.D. said, Animal experimentation has been essential to the development of all cardiac surgery, transplantation surgery, joint replacements and all vaccinations ( Americans for Medical Progress 1). The numbers to back up this claim are that over 440,000 open-heart surgeries are performed and 11,000 kidneys are transplanted every year, not to mention that animal experimentation has made possible the salvation of 20,000 kidney dialysis patients each year (Botting 1). Also, the ability to test on animals has made possible the relatively safe and successful use of dangerous chemotherapy drugs to treat cancer (Americans for Medical Progress 1). Drugs such as this cannot be tested on humans because of their strength and potential for killing in inappropriate doses. If the proper dosage were not known, the results would be inaccurate and could be lethal. Many antibiotics and vaccines used today were developed and tested through animal research, as were insulin to control diabetes and nearly all modern anesthetics (Botting 1). It is hard to imagine life without some of these lifesaving drugs, or even the ones that do not save lives, just make life a little more bearable. It is likewise significant to note that animal testing has benefited animals as well. When a pet owner takes his or her animal to the veterinarian to receive shots, chances are that those shots are available because of animal experimentation. Heartworm, feline leukemia, rabies, anthrax, and tetanus are all preventable because of animal testing. PETA and HSUS are honorable institutions with admirable goals, but they are over idealistic and overzealous. That fact can best be described by the following quote: Animal rights activists blocked for two years research aimed at stopping transmission of HIV from mother to child. That research ultimately demonstrated how AZT can prevent babies from getting AIDS (Americans for Medical Progress). Sometimes the good of the many outweighs the good of the few. This does not mean that animal testing should go unchecked. Suffering is kept to a minimum by legislation and advancements in testing alternatives. As these alternatives progress, the number of live animals needed for testing will gradually decrease and eventually the need for them will hopefully be eliminated. But in the meantime, animal testing is too important to stop. The benefits waiting to be had are too important and any possible drawbacks are too insignificant to allow a halt in animal research. BibliographyBibliographyAnimal Testing by the Cosmetic Industry. (20 March 1999). Animal Research Saves Human and Animal Lives. Americans for Medical Progress. (20 March 1999). Animal Research Holds the Key to Saving Human Lives. Americans for Medical Progress. (20 March 1999). Ball, Matt and Anne Green, and Jack Norris. Veganism as the Path to Animal Liberation. The Animals Agenda Sep/Oct 1998: 44-45. Botting, Jack H. and Adrian R. Morrison. Animal Research is Vital to Medicine. Scientific American. 187 February 1997: 83-85. D. E. Skin Stand-Ins. Scientific American. September 1990: 168. James-Enger, Kelly. Beyond Animal Testing. Vegetarian Times. October 1998: 254. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. (20 March 1999). 21 Things You May Not Know About the Animal Rights Movement. Americans for Medical Progress. (20 March 1999). U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Animal Welfare Report Fiscal Year 1997. READ: The Terminal Man Essay
Friday, September 27, 2019
Hypothesis Testing & Variance - Research Paper Example T test was conducted to determine if there is a difference in the intrinsic satisfaction of male and female employees. Table 1 shows that the p value is 0.40 which is greater than alpha. Therefore, there is no sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis and conclude that female employees have a higher intrinsic job satisfaction than male employees. Specifically, there is no significant difference in the intrinsic job satisfaction of males (Mean=5.14, Variance=0.61) and females (Mean=5.31, Variance=0.21), t = - 0.86, n. s. This information shows that males and females have the same intrinsic satisfaction. Therefore, managers may not need to favor one worker over the other based on their gender because internal motivation and satisfaction is just the same for both males and females. T test was conducted to determine if there is a difference in the extrinsic satisfaction of hourly and salaried employees. Table 2 shows that the p value is 0.61 which is greater than alpha. Therefore, there is no sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis and conclude that salaried employees have a higher intrinsic job satisfaction than hourly employees. Specifically, there is no significant difference in the extrinsic job satisfaction of hourly (Mean=5.38, Variance=0.18) and salaried employees (Mean=5.48, Variance=0.36), t = - 0.52, n. s. Results of this investigation show that an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s position does not affect his or her extrinsic job satisfaction. Thus, managers do not need to hire more salaried employees (which will cost the company a higher compensation package) than hourly employees since paid overtime does not seem to be a factor in their job satisfaction. The Z test and the T test both aim to find if there is a significant difference in the mean values of two samples. However, the Z test makes use of the populationÃ¢â¬â¢s variance and this value is almost never known thus, most researches use
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Communicating across genders - Essay Example However, I feel that even this is unnecessarily divisive. In my experience, Adler's findings that gender difference amounts to just 1% of the variance of speech (186) between any two people is more important. This paper will look at three conversations within and between two groups of people to show that shared experience and goals facilitate communication better than shared gender. It is necessarily difficult to give concrete examples of gender communication being more similar than different, because it is generally easier to disprove than prove something, but two personal conversations in which I took part are good examples of how shared experience facilitates communication better than shared gender Ã¢â¬â and that, equally, different experiences hinder communication. These two conversations involved separate groups of people, both composed of mixed genders but similar politics and ideology. Both conversations discussed the case of Representative Anthony Weiner, who recently resi gned after revelations that he had been attempting to engage numerous female political admirers in (usually unwanted) sexual conversation. In the first conversation, both men and women condemned Weiner unanimously for the sexual harassment of sending explicit photographs of his anatomy to non-consenting women who had merely expressed their support of his policies. Men and women used the same sentence structures and argumentative styles, appealing to reason and emotion equally: most sentences used personal pronouns (I, you, he), for example. One interjection in the conversation was taken badly by the other members, as it was a joke that was highly inappropriate, which had been made by a woman Ã¢â¬â not something that Adler would expect (184). In fact, this conversation happened online with most people using gender-neutral pseudonyms, and the only way I could figure out who was of which gender was by specifically asking them. The second conversation happened after someone made the assertion that Weiner was simply guilty of sexual harassment, and his resignation neither inappropriate nor adequate punishment for his crime. The communication style was similar to the previous group's in that most people used 'I' statements and littered their messages with pronouns; however, in this group most people were more skeptical of the idea that Weiner's behaviour was criminal. In one unusual exchange, a woman made the statement that Ã¢â¬Å"Flashing someone virtually is the same as flashing someone in personÃ¢â¬ , and a man responded Ã¢â¬Å"I think you meant to say that you 'think/feel' they are the same.Ã¢â¬ In this example, a woman used concrete language (or rather, a male conversational style ) to express an opinion and was told by a man that she should revert to female conversational style. The same man then said Ã¢â¬Å"the decisions we make in our lives brand usÃ¢â¬ , arguing that when considering Weiner's sexual harassment of Ms Ginger Lee, one should bea r her career choice (she is a former porn star) in mind. Clearly his usage of a male conversational style was acceptable. A different woman dismissed Lee's claims by saying Ã¢â¬Å"You know as well as I do that women are just as bad as men, when it comes to manipulation.Ã¢â¬ Her appeal to an emotional relationship is, Adler argues, typically feminine. It may be interesting to note that the first group do not believe that there is any material difference
Team Leadership and Management - Essay Example 33). The solutions and strategies proposed by the authors are really practical in today's multinational organizations. Different tasks make a degree of different contributions to the team's various functions in production, support, and well-being. Although technological changes are usually aimed at modifying the team's production function, they almost always have profound effects on the team well-being and member support functions as well. The sharing among team members of both access to the hardware portions of the new technology and of the expertise needed to use and understand the new systems may provide brand new range of the distribution of status and power within a team, dimensions that compare quite poorly with the prior status structure. In terms of underlying social-exchange dynamics, the principal rewards and costs concern task achievement or success. In modern multi-national companies the affective or emotional factor of teamwork is important to all relationships. It is le ss so in task-based, personal relationships than in purely social roles. Team-based approach plays a much important role in the development of team relations than it does in organizations in general (Northhouse, 2003). I agree with the authors that teamwork should be flexible and fit with environmental changes. I would add communication as one of the most important elements in teamwork. The major reason Critique: Team LED 501 for past success is open communication policy and the ability to get people to work together as team. A team leader sees themselves having an informative meeting with employees. They should emphasize open door policy and encourage employees to use it. The task of the team leader is to inform team members that they would like to have some formal meetings for brainstorming and troubleshooting purposes and some informal meetings just as an excuse to get together. Virtually, members of a multi-national workforce behave the same way as traditional teams but pay more attention to interpersonal communication and interaction. In a virtual or practical environment, working relationships vary in their empathy or understanding, effectiveness, and power. The results of ineffective communication range from minor embarrassment to critical problems. Minor embarrassment occurs when we show up at a friend's house for a party on the wrong night; a critical problem occurs. As a human resource professional, one of leaders' responsibilities is to develop and improve the communication process in organization. The authors explain how effective teamwork or group effort can enhance the communication process. The authors do not pay attention to problems and conflicts take place in virtual environment. The communication process is rich with imagery and descriptions. Words and other forms of communication are symbols that bring to mind mental images. In fact, communi cations is basically the management of symbols or language. It is through use of these mental images that we communicate and convey relationships and promote understanding that generates the necessary action to accomplish organizational goals and objectives. These ideas might be supported by the Bible saying: "And do not forget to do
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Discussion Board - Essay Example It is actually at this point that the women begin acting as detectives. Mrs. Peters made inferences on a loaf of bread left in there, as well as on the possibility that Minnie Wright was actually preparing a quilt and that she was actually making nervous sewing patterns on it, which was a sign of a possible mental problem or anxiety. The rising action continues until the part where both female characters find an empty birdcage and finally a bird in the sewing basket whose neck was wrung. The falling action is the part of the play where the men return from their search while the women pretend not to know anything especially about the dead bird with a broken neck. The men still make fun of the women as they overhear them talking whether Minnie Wright was going to quilt it or knot it. The men thought that the women were just discussing trifles but what they did not realize was that it was the actually the most important piece of evidence they needed. Basically, it is the female charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ actions and curiosity that advance the playÃ¢â¬â¢s plot. Had Mrs. Hale and Mrs. Peters not been curious or inquisitive enough, they would not have started looking around the kitchen among Minnie WrightÃ¢â¬â¢s things for anything that could satisfy their curiosity. This eventually led them to the bird with a broken neck. Moreover, the indifference of the men towards the women Ã¢â¬â by regarding them as merely interested in trifles Ã¢â¬â somehow helped advance the plot too, for, had they been different, they would have searched the kitchen first and the play could have ended there if they had found the bird
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Protecting Private Property - Term Paper Example The fact is that Hitler was a socialist, but he also betrayed his socialist principles by promoting the enrichment of a few individuals at the expense of the populace. Despite its massive industrialization and military development at the height of Nazi rule, the German economy was not thriving, and economic growth did not trickle down to the peasants. Looking at this statement at face value suggests that Hitler was a capitalist. However, as a capitalist, he should not have been encouraging and participating in the destruction and grabbing of private Jewish property and businesses. The irony is ridiculous, to say the least. Man must be put in a Position to Develop Freely the Talents that God has given HimI totally agree with this statement. From religious and philosophical perspectives, it is obvious that God created every one of us with a special talent and wanted the best for mankind. In the book of Genesis, God says during the creation that He created man in His own image and liken ess. From the little we know about God, He is omnipotent, omnibenevolent, omniscience and omnipresence. Since we were created in His image and likeness, we should be able to demonstrate limited aspects of these attributes because we cannot be exactly like Him. However, we have abilities that God gave us and only Him Ã¢â¬â not another man Ã¢â¬â can deny us the opportunity to develop those God-given human talents and abilities. It is often said that one is born with a talent or ability, or Ã¢â¬Å"was meantÃ¢â¬ to do something.
Monday, September 23, 2019
Discussion forum - Essay Example rds, the thesis makes the compelling argument that employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ rights and responsibilities are limited by the low costs and high profit margins at Wal-Mart. There are a number of potential areas of development the essay can contain to build on this thesis. One potential area of development could be the angle that Wal-Mart is exploiting its employees through these low prices and that if they raised prices more the customers would not complain. Another possible way of developing the essay is through investigating what such profit margins and low costs say about the American public. Even though the employees are working for very little, it is more important for the public to receive these low costs than to care about the people that are receiving these wages. Finally, a possible area of development could through examining how the employees feel about this situation. In examining the second thesis there are a number of notable considerations. The first consideration is whether this thesis constitutes an argument or is merely stating something. In these regards, itÃ¢â¬â¢s clear the thesis is making an argument. The argument is that Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s growth continues to hurt small business owners. The next concern is whether the thesis is specific. In these regards, it seems that perhaps the thesis should be more specific. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s well understood that Wal-Mart hurts small businesses, but perhaps a more important investigation is what the lack of small businesses means for American communities and the American economy. The next area of concern is potential areas the thesis could be supported. In these regards, there are a number of possible supporting arguments. For instance, the essay could examine economic and statistical research that demonstrates the negative affect Wal-Mart has on local businesses. The essay could also consider the issue from a larger perspective. In these regards, the total amount of small businesses nationwide could be examined to see if they have
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Defining Moments in Canada Essay Defining Moments in Canadian History During the 20th century, there were many events and situations that helped define the country of Canada. There were positive moments, but also a good amount of negative ones. Of course, the successful events kept Canadians in a positive light, but the negative situations helped Canada learn from its mistakes and went to prove how strong and brave its citizens were/are. The three most defining moments would have to be the Dieppe Raid, the Invasion of Normandy, and the Battle of Vimy Ridge. These three events not only assisted the country to become what it has today, but has also defined what the nation has become. The first defining moment of the 20th century was the Battle of Vimy Ridge. This particular battle was a military engagement located in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region of France during World War I. The main fighters were Canadian Corps against the German army. The battle took place from April 9 to 12, 1917. This was the beginning stage for the Battle of Arras, led by the British. The Canadian Corps was ordered to seize Vimy Ridge in April 1917. Situated in northern France, the heavily-fortified seven-kilometre ridge held a commanding view over the Allied lines. The Canadians would be assaulting over an open graveyard since previous French attacks had failed with over 100,000 casualties. (Cook) Main objectives were to take control over German-held high ground along an extensive escarpment. Doing so would allow the southern flank to advance without having to be heavily worried about enemy fire. With support from a nearby barrage, Canadians were able to capture most of the ridge within the first day of attack. The town of Thelus fell the second day, as did the crest of the ridge. The final objective was to capture another ridge located outside the town of Givenchy-en-Gohelle, which fell to the Canadian Corps on April 12. After that incident, the German forces had no choice but to retreat. This quick battle was successful due to a mix of tactical and technical innovation, powerful artillery support, extensive training, and thought-out planning. This event is a defining moment for Canada because it was the first time that all four sectors of the Canadian Expeditionary Force participated in a battle as a whole, therefore becoming a Canadian Nationalistic symbol of sacrifice and great achievement. The Canadian success at Vimy demonstrated that no position was invulnerable to a meticulously planned and conducted assault. This success had a profound effect on Allied planning. Though the victory at Vimy came swiftly, it did not come without cost. There were 3,598 dead out of 10,602 Canadian casualties. After Vimy, the Canadian Corps went from one success to another, to be crowned by their achievements in the 1918 advance to victory. This record won for Canada a separate signature on the Versailles Peace Treaty ending the War.(Battle of Vimy Ridge) The second definitive moment of the 20th century was the Dieppe Raid. This event was a World War II attack on the German occupied port of Dieppe on August 19,1942. The raid took place on the northern coast of France, and began around 5 am. Allied commanders were forced to call a retreat, a mere 6 hours later. Objectives included seizing and holding a major port to prove that it was possible and also to gather information. Allies also pl anned on destroying coastal defences, port structures, and all strategic buildings. The allied countries knew that they would eventually have to attack, so they figured they needed the practice. Another goal was to take some of Hitlers attention off of trying to invade Russia. The plan was to use 5000 Canadians and have a 1-day attack and retreat on the Nazi-held coastal town of Dieppe. The plan was also to be secretive and attack at dark. None of these objectives were met. The Soviet Union was pressuring the Allies to open a second front in Western Europe. The Allies, however, needed to build up their military resources before undertaking a full campaign. They felt that a large raid on the coast of France could force the Germans to divert more of their military resources away from the Soviet Union and also help in the planning for the full-scale assault to come. (Canada Remembers) The first mistake was that they reached Dieppe in broad daylight, making this surprise attack not very surprising. Also, the Dieppe forces became on high alert at Dieppe because French agents warned them that the British were showing a great deal of interest in the area. When the Allied forces arrived at the port city, its flanking cliffs were well defended. Thesoldiers were met with very heavy machine gun fire from little stations dug into overlooking cliffs. The Allied fire support was not nearly adequate enough and the attackers were basically trapped on the beach by series of obstacles and never-ending German fire. After less than 6 hours, the Allies were forced to surrender and many of the soldiers were stranded on the port, to be killed or to be taken prisoner by the Germans. The Allied forces were beaten severely, they definitely lost this battle, and they lost it hard. Numerous tactical and technical errors were made, resulting in huge amounts of Canadian deaths. The raid was a disaster: More than 900 Canadian soldiers were killed, and thousands more were wounded and taken prisoner. Despite the bloodshed, the raid provided valuable lessons for subsequent Allied amphibious assaults on Africa, Italy and Normandy. (Herd) This was, after all, one of the first attempts by the Allies on a German-held port. This was an important, defining moment for Canadians because the lessons learned there became the guidelines of what not to do in regards to future endeavours, and influenced preparations for the highly successful Normandy landings. The last definitive moment of the 20th century was the Invasion of Normandy (D-Day) on June 6, 1944. The Allies attacked the German-held beaches of Normandy, France towards the end of World War II. The landings were done in two phases; the first was an airborne assault landing consisting of 24 000 British, US, and Canadian soldiers shortly after midnight. The second was an amphibious landing around 6:30 am of Allied infantry. This attack was executed by all elements: land, sea, and air. The invasion required transportation of soldiers, and materials from England by aircraft and ships. These particular landings took place on an 20 km stretch of the Normandy coast on 5 seperate beach areas: Utah, Omaha, Gold, Juno, and Sword. The British armies took control over Sword and Gold, US took charge over Utah and Omaha, and Canadian forces stormed Juno. On June 6th, 1944, the 3rd Canadian Infantry Division and the 2nd Armoured Brigade were tasked with establishing a bridgehead on the beach codenamed Juno. This was an eight-kilometre long stretch of beach bordering Saint-Aubin, Bernieres, Courseulles-sur-Mer and Graye-sur-Mer. Assault troops were then to move towards the Carpiquet airfield, 18 kilometres inland. The 3rd Infantry Division, under Major-General R. F. L. Keller, was under command of the Second British Army. It was flanked on the left by the 3rd British Infantry Division that was to land on Sword beach (Lion-sur-Mer, Langrune-sur-Mer). To the right, the 50th British Division had as its target Gold Beach (La Riviere, Le Hamel, and Arromanches).(D-Day) Unlike the previous, unsuccessful raid at Dieppe, surprise was achieved at Normandy, thanks to bad weather and a very successful deception plan deployed in the months prior to the attack. The deceptive plan was used to distract Germanys attention from the possibility of landings in Normandy. Another key success was to convince Adolf Hitler that landings would occur at the Pas-de-Calais. At the same time of the attack, there wer e also decoy operations taking place. Fourteen thousand young Canadians stormed Juno Beach on D-Day. Their courage, determination and self-sacrifice were the immediate reasons for the success in those critical hours. The fighting they endured was fierce and frightening. The price they paid was high the battles for the beachhead cost 340 Canadian lives and another 574 wounded. (Juno Beach) By the end of D-Day, 30 000 Canadians had been successfully landed and all had penetrated further into France than any other Allied force! This was a defining moment for the country of Canada because, after all the previous, unsuccessful missions, they deserved a glorious victory. That is definitely what they got! All their hard work; preparing weapons, planting decoys, and all their extensive planning made this invasion so successful, and all the tedious work paid off. This event is definitive for me because my great-grandfather was involved in this attack, and thankfully returned home from it. There were definitely more than three defining moments for Canada during the 20th century, but the Battle of Vimy Ridge, the Dieppe Raid, and the Invasion of Normandy were three of the most significant. These events helped Canada grow as a nation, and made Canadians even more proud of their heritage and their country.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Transitioning from a Linear to a Circular Economy Prepare a critical review evaluating the challenges of transitioning from a linear to a circular economy. 2000 words (24th March) Introduction The linear model of consumption will need to adjust or be replaced in the near future due to rising population, decreasing resources (i.e. metals, materials), and water limits. The current linear economic system is unsustainable but the concept of circular economy may supply the means to allow for sustainability by improving efficient use of material and energy. From policies and frameworks driven on a macro scale by local governments to optimisation of process lines and waste reduction on a micro scale gives more social and sustainable aspects to our current way of resource use. We can use examples throughout the world of a shift in the utilisation of resources in an overall effect of achieving the ultimate goal of zero waste and impact to the environment. What is Linear Economy? Linear economies assume the worlds resources are unlimited. The linear models primary objective is to the economy, with no regard for ecological and social impacts. It takes waste from the production process and contaminates the environment and is based on the principle, take, make, consume, discard and everlasting availability of resources. (Drljaca, 2015) This was due to a historically cheap and plentiful amount of resources being available leading to companies focusing on supplying the customer. This has disregarded the environmental impact and lacked incentives to minimise waste from its production to its end of life. Currently there is more than 11 billion tons of global waste globally and only 25% is recycled. (Lacy Rutqvist, 2015) Circular Economy Circular economy focuses on the sustainable exploitation of resources but also acts to increase the social responsibility. It aims to decouple prosperity from resource consumption by ensuring a closed loop process which depends on the extraction of virgin resources. (Sauve, Bernard Sloan, 2016) The concept allows waste to be put through the production process again and thereafter only a small amount of waste that is unable to be recycled is disposed into the environmental harmlessly. This will reduce our dependency for new resources, allow future generations to meet their needs, and promote sustainability. Due to Chinas resource supply and environmental problems they have utilised the circular economy model on a national level many years ago allocating three distinctive levels micro, meso, and macro: The micro level aims to reduce waste and optimise materials for cleaner production within an individual company. The meso level collaborates between industries to utilise the by-product of one another which is facilitated by Chinas governmental directives. The circular economy at a macro level is integrated with societal and stakeholder interests which is on a similar level to sustainable development. (Sauve, Bernard Sloan, 2016) Figure 3.1: Overview of the circular economy concept. (Reh, 2013) The circular economy model aims to replace the linear economy model by extending the usefulness of the product via several methods: Building a product which has a higher quality and more durable targeting the consumers who are able to pay a premium. Refurbishing a product Trade back your product to the market for a price Upgrade the product to add new features Refilling a component in the product where the rest of the functions are still in quality. Repairing a broken product (Lacy Rutqvist, 2015) Having a society that promotes circular economy may increase competition worldwide. (Drljaca, 2015) Policies The transition from a linear to circular economy has been happening for many years and is seen from the laws, policies, and frameworks given below in numerous countries around the world. The methodology changes from country to country as an example according to Tukker (2015) China promotes a top-down national political objective while the EU, Japan and USA use bottom-up environmental and waste management policies. Country Circular economy strategy UK The House of Commons suggested in 2014 that the circular economy should be stimulated by taxation reforms. This would reward reuse and give more funding for companies promoting material recovery. They could prohibit companies using non-recyclable components where other alternatives exist. (Lacy Rutqvist, 2015) Denmark The Denmark without waste strategy focuses on better exploiting the resource by reducing the environmental impact and improving recycling, e.g. household waste recycling. Funding is given for improvements in waste separation and treatment facilities. (Lacy Rutqvist, 2015) Scotland The Safeguarding Scotlands Resources initiative is aims to reduce material use through replacing material with reused/ recyclable substitutes and making sure that virgin resources are efficiently and productively used. China Several regions using the Circular Economy Promotion Law of the Peoples Republic of China have set up funds aiming at the circular development and developments of science. The law also pushes for collaboration among several industries to re-use each others waste to benefit their own process.ÃâÃ (Lacy Rutqvist, 2015) Singapore The Singapore Packaging Agreement (SPA) joint initiative by the private sector, nongovernmental organisations, and government which dramatically reduces the packaging waste in Singapore. This has saved USD 35 million over a 5-year period. (Lacy Rutqvist, 2015) The Republic of Croatia The Act on Sustainable Waste Management manages waste at its source by putting the cost of waste to the producer. Disposal must not threaten future generations. (Drljaca, 2015) The drivers for the transition from a linear to a circular economy The transition towards a circular economy is dependent on politics, culture, society, the economy, and technology limitations. This transition can be implemented from the top-down or bottom-up. The top-down process as an example has international and national policies delegated to companies and their operations and supply chains. The bottom-up process starts at the product level hoping to simulate ideas at a more disaggregated level of analysis up to the higher level systems. The top-down process should be used to enhance bottom-up initiatives. The aim is to identify areas where we can reduce virgin resources usage, carbon emissions, and waste production by collaborating between supply chains and stakeholders e.g. Local Authorities. (Genovese et al., 2017) Economics By 2030 the linear growth model will be unable to supply the growing demand for resources. The most likely model by Lacy Rutqvist (2015) shows a USD 4.5 trillion loss by 2030 increasing to USD 25 trillion by 2050. If the circular economy replaces the current linear model it could potentially release USD 4.5 trillion in additional economic output by 2030 as shown in Figure 5.1.1. Figure 5.1.1: Potential savings from a circular opportunity. (Lacy Rutqvist, 2015) However, according to Drljaca (2015), the circular advantage hopes to give a competitive edge leading to improvement of resource utilisation which could decrease material exploitation by 17-24% until 2030 with savings of ~EUR 630 billion per year which totals USD 10.3 trillion from 2015-2030 (1 EUR = 1.0867 USD 2015 average, Pound Sterling (2016)). In either case the huge potential savings from using the circular advantage could persuade governments to drive the change. Fair competition between linear and circular economy Current regulations give linear economy an unfair advantage over circular economy by making it more financially attractive by increased profits through expanding resource use. A shift of taxation from labour to resources would see this shift in bias. Companies are encouraged to extract new resources instead of investing in people and processes to achieve a higher productivity of resources already in use. Currently the Europe labour tax totals 52% of all tax revenues while Other taxes could include landfill tax, energy recovery tax, and reducing the VAT on a more circular advantage product. An increase in cost of the product that incorporates the cost of environmental impact would help manufacturers to minimise the impact to keep pricing competitive. Product-service systems (PSS) In a product-oriented business model companies focus on the increase in products sold to maximise profits however in a PSS model companies are paid by offering a service and the product and consumable is the cost factor. This leads to the companies being incentivised to prolong the life of the product which could be done by using more robust materials or re-using parts to the end of the products life. Renting, leasing, and sharing reduces the impact on the environmental per product manufactured however leased products will tend to be used without care leading to reduced longevity of the product and will be returned to the manufacturer more frequently compared to the traditional manner. Due to labour intensity, PSS increases the cost to manufacture the product and dependent on the speed of innovations for certain technological industries the re-use of components may be deemed uneconomic due to no demand. PSS can contribute to resource -efficiency and a circular economy but does not change the incentive to maximise the product sales. (Tukker, 2015) Circular Economy Challenges Entropy The circular economy assumes the planet is a closed system with the amount of resources being depleted equalling the amount of waste generated. This principle follows the Laws of Thermodynamics however in practice the circular flow of exchange starts with low entropy from the environment and ends with high entropy waste polluting the environment. (Genovese et al., 2017) Sauve, Bernard Sloan (2016) further emphasises this with an added social impact of, what is socially more desirable investing in a new infrastructure to recycle raw material to limit waste or exploit additional raw materials at cheaper cost to use today to build a school? At some point the cost to refine the material will exceed the benefit to the environment. Processes According to Sauve, Bernard Sloan (2016), in many cases certain processes in the value chains are non-existent leading to products that are in the queue for recycling often dis-regarded as companies who seek profit are not ready to use waste as the raw material for new manufacturing. Some experts see the implementation of the circular economy model for sustainable development on current linear economy model productions as an automatic failure. It is difficult to achieve a profit using circular economy as support is sometimes unavailable through policies, national eco-industrial parks (EIPs) initiatives, environmental legislative framework, and economic taxes and subsidies for development. (Ghisellini, Cialani Ulgiati, 2016) Economics Fair Competition The complexity and early understanding of circular economy will require experts from many sectors to achieve the economic incentives that would ensure the post-consumption products are re-integrated upstream within manufacturing. It is more expensive to manufacture a durable long lasting product than an equivalent quick and disposable version. This is based on the fact that the public pays for the cost of disposal to the environment. In order to make circular economy more feasible requires integration of the cost of disposal into the price paid by the customer. (Sauve, Bernard Sloan, 2016) There needs to be internalisation of full environmental costs implemented using certain governmental legislation (e.g. taxes) to ensure reverse flow of the products post-economy. This is therefore dependent on governmental intervention which is dictated by political-economic issues which in turn will slow down circular economy opportunities. (Sauve, Bernard Sloan, 2016) Geographic Feasibility It may be unfeasible to use recycling, reuse and/or recovery as an option within certain geologies as they may not be appropriate in some instances based on green chemistry and technologies available e.g. prevention maybe a better option. (Tukker, 2015) More examples can be seen in Table A1. Case studies TATA Steel Currently concrete, timber, and steel have huge differences in their life cycle flows within the demolishing industry of buildings as seen in Figure 7.1.1. According to Reh (2013), achieving complete re-use and recycling remains impossible with todays technology so maximum recovery of the most valuable resource remains the first priority. The integration of different materials combined with depreciation requires a more involved investigation of the recovery plan which becomes very complex. Figure 7.1.1: Life cycle of a demolished building (Reh, 2013) Blast furnace-basic oxygen furnace (BF-BOF) is the most common steel process however with shortage of metallurgy coke, high CO2 emissions, high by-product of slag, and dust from blast furnace gas cleaning is not considered environmental friendly. An alternative being the new electric arc furnace which is more energy efficient and reduces the CO2 emissions but high capital investments remain the limitation. (Reh, 2013) Toyota Motor Cooperation By optimising the sorting of dust in Toyotas automobile shredder pants Toyota were able to successfully treat 100% of the residue of 15,000 cars per month into valuable materials. High value electrical energy is transferred to several process steps to decrease the entropy of mixing during production. This improvement in technology has an exponential impact on the car industry with an estimated 1 billion cars in the world. (Reh, 2013) Conclusion The transition to a circular economy has many challenges and obstacles in the near future. As shown, many countries are placing high emphasis on the legislation and development of circular economy as they see a requirement to adjust on a macro sustainable level. If the transition is increased this could potentially unlock several trillions of dollars over the many years to come. In order for this to work a combination of strategies at every level is required to allow each stakeholder to be a benefit to the global transition. Appendix A Table A1: Further examples of challenges with circular economy (Ghisellini, Cialani, Ulgiati, 2016) References BRIEN, H. G. (2015a) Circular Economy. [Online] Available from https://kenniskaarten.hetgroenebrein.nl/en/kenniskaart/circular-economy/ [Accessed: 23rd February 2017] BRIEN, H. G. (2015b) The 10 Big Questions for the Circular Economy. [Online] Available from http://hetgroenebrein.nl/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/10-Big-Questions-for-the-Circular-Economy-INFOGRAPHIC.pdf [Accessed: 23rd February 2017] DRLJACA, M. (2015) The Transition from Linear to Circular Economy (Concept of Efficient Waste Management). In Association for Quality and Standardization of Serbia. VrnjaÃâÃ ka Banja, 2015. p. 35-44. Available from http://www.kvalitet.org.rs/images/phocadownload/the%20transition%20linear%20in%20circular%20economy%20miroslav%20drljaa.pdf [Accessed: 23rd February 2017] Ellen Macarthur Foundation (2015) Our Mission is to Accelerate the Transition to a Circular Economy. [Online] Available from https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/ [Accessed: 23rd February 2017] GENOVESE, A. et al. (2017) Sustainable supply chain management and the transition towards a circular economy: Evidence and some applications. Omega. [Online] 66. p. 344-357. Available from http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0305048315001322/1-s2.0-S0305048315001322-main.pdf?_tid=74c6de02-fa10-11e6-aa77-00000aacb35facdnat=1487886106_74b304b3dc5437e17e5fe519fa8c0812 [Accessed: 23rd February 2017] GEORGE, D. A. R., Lin, B. C. Chen, Y. (2015) A circular economy model of economic growth. Environmental Modelling Software. [Online] 73. p. 60-63. Available from http://ac.els-cdn.com/S1364815215300050/1-s2.0-S1364815215300050-main.pdf?_tid=0bc1df60-fa10-11e6-8c30-00000aab0f6cacdnat=1487885930_37488d1ce4f1739084fd69489fc8a1a7 [Accessed: 23rd February 2017] GHISELLINI, P., CIALANI, C. ULGIATI, S. (2016) A review on circular economy: the expected transition to a balanced interplay of environmental and economic systems. Journal of Cleaner Production. [Online] 114. p. 11-32. Available from http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0959652615012287/1-s2.0-S0959652615012287-main.pdf?_tid=1b6a27e6-fa11-11e6-b2c6-00000aab0f6bacdnat=1487886386_e13f933c344129238b699b40c81c696b [Accessed: 23rd February 2017] LACY, P. RUTQVIST, J. (2015) Waste to Wealth: the circular economy advantage. UK, Hampshire: Macmillan Publishers Limited. POUND STERLING (2016) Historical Rates for the EUR/USD currency conversion on 31 December 2015 (31/12/2015). Available from: https://www.poundsterlinglive.com/best-exchange-rates/euro-to-us-dollar-exchange-rate-on-2015-12-31. (Accessed: 19th March 2017) RAUPACH, M. R. et al. (2007) Global and regional drivers of accelerating CO2 emissions. PNAS. [Online] 104. (24). p. 10288 -10293. Available from https://uhi.blackboard.com/bbcswebdav/pid-621274-dt-content-rid-5673934_1/courses/UF811998/PNAS-2007-Raupach-10288-93.pdf [Accessed: 23rd February 2017] REH, L. (2013) Process engineering in circular economy. Particuology. [Online] 11. p. 119-133. Available from http://ac.els-cdn.com/S1674200113000023/1-s2.0-S1674200113000023-main.pdf?_tid=f6b7e250-fa0e-11e6-9938-00000aacb360acdnat=1487885465_0117d7df5a14a5ca6f24c03ae761e2d5 [Accessed: 23rd February 2017] SAUVE, S., BERNARD, S. SLOAN, P. (2016) Environmental sciences, sustainable development and circular economy: Alternative concepts for trans-disciplinary research. Environmental Development. [Online] 17. p. 48-56. Available from http://ac.els-cdn.com/S2211464515300099/1-s2.0-S2211464515300099-main.pdf?_tid=c0687f78-fa10-11e6-bdc2-00000aacb35eacdnat=1487886233_c2050df04694fc30b490f4e8486dee8a [Accessed: 23rd February 2017] SKEA, J. NISHIOKA, S. (2008) Policies and practices for a low-carbon society. Climate Policy. [Online] 8. p. S5-S16. Available from https://uhi.blackboard.com/bbcswebdav/pid-621272-dt-content-rid-5632275_1/courses/UF811998/Policies%20and%20practices%20for%20a%20low-carbon%20society-1.pdf [Accessed: 23rd February 2017] SU, B. et al. (2013) A review of the circular economy in China: moving from rhetoric to implementation. Journal of Cleaner Production. [Online] 42. p. 215-227. Available from http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0959652612006117/1-s2.0-S0959652612006117-main.pdf?_tid=5aa9aef6-fa0f-11e6-9009-00000aacb362acdnat=1487885633_e486ac7b90cff16cd44ec5b72b405a9a [Accessed: 23rd February 2017] TUKKER, A. (2015) Product services for a resource-efficient and circular economy a review. Journal of Cleaner Production. [Online] 97. p. 76-91. Available from http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0959652613008135/1-s2.0-S0959652613008135-main.pdf?_tid=b1c99494-fa0f-11e6-bafc-00000aacb362acdnat=1487885779_1dbb3b632024a09a87307a26dc6caf65 [Accessed: 23rd February 2017] YADUVANSHI, N. R., MYANA, R. KRISHNAMURTHY, S. (2016) Circular Economy for Sustainable Development in India. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. [Online] 9 (46/ December). p. 1-9. Available from http://www.indjst.org/index.php/indjst/article/view/107325/76142 [Accessed: 23rd February 2017] ZINK, T. Geyer, R. (2017) Circular Economy Rebound. Journal of Industrial Ecology. [Online] 00 (0). p. 1-10. Available from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.eor.uhi.ac.uk/doi/10.1111/jiec.12545/epdf [Accessed: 23rd February 2017]
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Linus Pauling (1901-1994) A master and maker in many fields, Linus Pauling lived a very long and productive life spanning nearly the entire twentieth century. By the time he was in his twenties, he had made a name for himself as a scientist. After many significant contributions including his work on the nature of the chemical bond, he turned to chemical biology and is generally accepted as the founder of molecular biology. Later in his life he became very involved in issues of politics and peace for which he is somewhat less well known. In his later years, he became interested in health and medicine and specifically in the use of vitamin C to prevent ailments from the common cold to cancer. In PaulingÃ¢â¬â¢s own words he was Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦a physicist with an interest in chemistry. [His] scientific work, however, has not been restricted to chemistry and physics, but has extended over X-ray crystallography, mineralogy, biochemistry, nuclear science, genetics, and molecular biology; also nutrition and various aspects of research in medicine, such as serology, immunology, and psychiatryÃ¢â¬ (Marinacci Ed., 1995, p. 26). Pauling received two Nobel Prizes acknowledging his contributions, one in Chemistry in 1954 and one for Peace in 1962. Gardner describes the creative individual as follows: Ã¢â¬Å"The creative individual is a person who regularly solves problems, fashions products, or defines new questions in a domain in a way that is initially considered novel but that ultimately becomes accepted in a particular cultural settingÃ¢â¬ (Gardner, 1993, p. 35). As I understand this, a creative individual is one who seeks out problems and states or solves them in a way that no one else has previously. Such inno... ...ive individuals. He also fits GardnerÃ¢â¬â¢s description of the Exemplary Creator fairly well. Linus Pauling was a creator with astounding intellectual abilities who was also active in many other areas as dictated by his interest and passion. His ideas and research into the nature of chemical bonds significantly changed the way that we understand the world. References Books: Gardner, H. (1993). Creating Minds. New York: Basic Books. Goertzel, T., & Goertzel, B. (1995). Linus Pauling. New York: Basic Books. Hargittai, I., & Hargittai, M. (2000). Conversations with Famous Chemists. London: Imperial College Press. Marinacci, B. (Ed.). (1995). Linus Pauling in His Own Words. New York: Simon & Schuster. Internet (photographs): http://www.wic.org/bio/lpauling.htm http://pauling.library.orst.edu/exhibit/index1.htm
Love is Close at Hand: The Age of Innocence November 1998, written for FILM 220: Aspects of Criticism. This is a 24-week course for second-year students, examining methods of critical analysis, interpretation and evaluation. The final assignment was simply to write a 1000-word critical essay on a film seen in class during the final six-weeks of the course. Students were expected to draw on concepts they had studied over the length of the course. INSTRUCTOR'S COMMENT: Brilliantly observed and beautifully written. The Age of Innocence is a film about confinement, restraint, and stoicism. Characters drift from tea, to the opera, and home again. They attend lavish parties, and observe the rigidity of English decorum; marry, have children, and die. Emotion is mollified by these various diversions, and all of upper-class New York appears to be content being anaesthetized by the idle task of upholding wealth and reputation. Only Countess Ellen Olenska and Newland Archer, with their feverish love for one another, test the bounds of this suffocating social structure. Newland and Countess Olenska's love is in strong contrast with the emotional vacuity of their peers, and it is this very contrast upon which the pathos of their story hinges. The lovers relish the moments they manage to steal with one another, absconding to a remote log cabin or savoring a clandestine carriage ride. The film is permeated by this sort of foreplay, teasing the viewer from beginning to end with auspicious meetings between the two lovers. Each time, however, the promising moments are snuffed by the pressures of New York high-society. Conjugal constraints force Newland and Countess Olenska to repress their longings, and in the drudgery of everyday ... ...untess Olenska's hand slides off Newland's as she leaves the table, and disappears from his life. Newland is left with a sculpture of May's hands, petrified and cold, sitting in his study to forever remind him of the Countess's delicate touch, and the ostensibly shallow and frigid wife who denied him his happiness. Referred to as his family's "strong right hand", Newland's composure slips and shatters over the course of the film as he becomes increasingly obsessed with Countess Olenska and the allure of her forbidden touch. The camera plays close attention to hands, reinforcing the rigidity and frigid decorum that pervade the film, offering the notion of touch as an escape from the pedantic lifestyle of upper-class New York. Ultimately, the simplicity of hands becomes the essence of life, love, and happiness, in a film saturated with customs, pageantry and pomp.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Importance of the First Soliloquy in Macbeth Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Following king Duncan's arrival at Inverness, Macbeth delivers his first major soliloquy. This speech summarizes his reasons for not wanting to commit murder. It is also an image of the plot of Macbeth, as it foreshadows the chain of events that is to follow the murder of Duncan. Although Macbeth knows that he cannot "trammel up the consequence" of Duncan's murder and that his actions will have repercussions, he commits the murder and continues to kill; thus is Macbeth shown to be a weak character who can be easily convinced to perform terrible deeds. Although this is not apparent before the predictions, the moments following them and his homecoming demonstrate Macbeth's own vulnerability. The important speech that he delivers summarizes the results of Duncan's murder, and the multitude of murders following this all follow suit. Macbeth's eventual deterioration is inevitable. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Near the beginning of the play, Macbeth is portrayed as a brave soldier and a noble officer in the king's army. He successfully leads the attack upon the invading forces of Macdonwald, the Thane of Cawdor, and Sweno, king of Norway. He is killing upon the order of another, in this case, the king: "[Macbeth] Like valour's minion carv'd out his passage/Till he fac'd the slave" (I.ii.19-20). Macbeth here appears as a powerful warlord who, although at times seems bloodthirsty, is effective in destroying the foe. Before his meeting with the witches, we have a rather clean view of him; he is a "good" man. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã When Macbeth and Banquo stumble onto the barren plateau where the w... ...e manipulated. While he can figure and rationalize alone, outside influences such as Lady Macbeth and the witches change his actions and skew his thoughts. This weakness of character was particularly unacceptable in Macbeth's time, when men were meant to be full of both mental and physical fortitude. Macbeth was a great man, but his tragic fault was his undoing, for a man of his power could not survive in those times without much more moral strength than he had. Ã Bibliography Ã Primary Source: Ã Shakespeare, William. Macbeth. Coles Total Study Edition. Toronto: Coles, 1992. Ã Secondary Sources: Ã Ã Ã 1. Coles Editorial Board. "Marginal Notes to Macbeth," Macbeth. Total Study Edition. Toronto: Coles, 1992. Ã Ã Ã 2. Coles Editorial Board. Macbeth Notes. Toronto: Coles, 1992. Ã
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
I am 30 years old and have been taking college courses over the last 11 years. I have always attended on a part time basis and I have never taken any summer courses. During the 11 years I have taken about two years off, and have officially changed my major three times. I have a lot of work experience that lines up with my current Business Management Major. I enjoy learning about Human Resources and have always thought I would enjoy a position in the Human Resources department. Academic Background When I started this journey I wanted to be an accountant, after my first semester at Saint Paul College a I realized, I did NOT want to be an accountant! The classes were very hard and a lot of work, there was just way too much to learn. I had a passion for children and growing up I always wanted to be a teacher, so I switched into a major in Child Development (CD). I made it through about two semesters of CD courses and learned that this was not the right path for me either. The instructors repeatedly reminded the students that careers in the CD field are not about making money (because there is not a lot of money in this field) but rather about working with the children. I thought I DO want to make money and instead of working with kids I would just have some of my own later in life. I also realized that if I completed this program, in the end I would have an education but no work experience. At this point I had no idea what I was going to get a degree in. I looked at my resume and realized that I had experience in operations management, Import/Export, various management positions at fast food restaurants, and extensive customer service experience. I came to the conclusion that a degree in Business Management would benefit me most, as it will ensure I have the education to match the experience. In 2009 I graduated from Saint Paul College with an AA as well as an AS in Business Management and in 2010 I transferred to Metro State University to complete my BS. This Course & Past HR Courses I took an Introduction to Human Resource Management course in 2004 of which I received an A grade, but it did not satisfy this course as required for the completion of my BS in Business Management. Since I have already taken a similar course, I do hope I can obtain another good grade, and possibly learn something I may have overlooked previously. I look forward to hearing the perspectives and ideas on how to handle different situations from the other students. More about Me I have been with my boyfriend for almost 10 years; we have a one year old daughter and plan to try for another after this semester is over. We have three large dogs ranging in age from 6-15, and once had a bearded dragon. We live 45 miles north of the twin cities in Harris Ã¢â¬â a town of about 1000 people. I work full time at BAE Systems in Fridley as a government property administrator, with previous positions held in Accounts Payable, Travel Accounting, and payroll. Conclusion As you can see my path through college has been a confusing one, and has had its failures and successes. Now that I am on the right path, I hope to be a successful business person. With my customer service and payroll experience, I have always thought I would be a good fit for an HR representative. I am a new mom and eager to expand my family further! I commute to work and have held several positions within the company. I am just an average person working my way through life and trying to obtain an education to make the quality of my life even better.
Monday, September 16, 2019
There are many different ways to approach the structure of a poem, a piece of fiction, a play. In what follows IÃ¢â¬â¢m going to make some suggestions about the structure of Michael DraytonÃ¢â¬â¢s poem beginning Ã¢â¬Å"Since thereÃ¢â¬â¢s no help, come let us kiss and part,Ã¢â¬ a sonnet from his collection titled Idea, first published in 1593. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s important for you to understand that there are many valuable and illuminating ways to talk about this poemÃ¢â¬â¢s structure, not any one, single, right way. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why IÃ¢â¬â¢m writing suggestions, not prescriptions. When I say Ã¢â¬Å"the structureÃ¢â¬ of DraytonÃ¢â¬â¢s poem, I mean not only how itÃ¢â¬â¢s put together but also the way it works. Learning how something is put together shows us what the parts are. Learning how those Ã¢â¬Å"put-togetherÃ¢â¬ parts work shows us the thing in action. And a short lyric poem like DraytonÃ¢â¬â¢s (any work of literature that weÃ¢â¬â¢re reading, for that matter) is a thing in action, a dynamic process. Here is DraytonÃ¢â¬â¢s poem. Since thereÃ¢â¬â¢s no help, come let us kiss and part; Nay, I have done, you get no more of me, And I am glad, yea glad with all my heart That thus so cleanly I myself can free;4 Shake hands forever, cancel all our vows, And when we meet at any time again, Be it not seen in either of our brows That we one jot of love retain. 8 Now at the last gasp of loveÃ¢â¬â¢s latest breath, When, his pulse failing, passion speechless lies, When faith is kneeling by his bed of death, And innocence is closing up his eyes, 12 Now if thou wouldst, when all have given him over, From death to life thou mightst him yet recover. Well, what are the parts of this poem? Words in lines. Specifically, words in lines which usually add up to ten syllables each. Words put together so that they make a rhythm as we say them, a sort of di-da di-da di-da di-da di-da rhythm, with emphasis usually on the Ã¢â¬Å"daÃ¢â¬ syllable, like this: And I am glad, yea glad with all my heart or this: And when we meet at any time again. And the poem is made up of lines whose end words rhyme (that is, chime together) in a certain pattern throughout the poem, like this: part / me / heart / free(abab)lines 1-4 vows /again / brows / retain (cdcd)lines 5-8 breath / lies / death / eyes (efef)lines 9-12 over / recover(gg)lines 13-14 This pattern creates groups of lines (they have technical English-teacher terms), which go together because their end-word rhymes link them together: lines 1-4=first quatrain lines 5-8=second quatrainÃ lines 9-12=third quatrain lines 13-14=final couplet The words in this poem are also organized grammatically, in several ways: sentencesÃ¢â¬âthe first (a cumulative sentenceÃ¢â¬âcheck out the term in a handbook or do a Google search) consisting of the poemÃ¢â¬â¢s first and second quatrains and the second (a periodic sentence) consisting of the third quatrain and the final couplet; clausesÃ¢â¬âa bunc h; notice, for example, the first line of the poemÃ¢â¬â Since thereÃ¢â¬â¢s no help, come let us kiss and partÃ¢â¬â a subordinate clause followed by a main clause in a combination showing a cause-and-effect relationship;Ã verbsÃ¢â¬âsignificant mood shifts within the poem (another technical English-teacher termÃ¢â¬âverbs come in Ã¢â¬Å"moods,Ã¢â¬ namely the indicative, subjunctive, or imperative, which, if you canÃ¢â¬â¢t recognize, youÃ¢â¬â¢d better get a grammar/composition handbook), with the imperative and indicative dominating the first eight lines and the indicative and subjunctive the last six (note especially Ã¢â¬Å"wouldstÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"mightstÃ¢â¬ in ll. 13-14); subjectsÃ¢â¬âall personal pronouns in the first eight lines (Ã¢â¬Å"us,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"you,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"weÃ¢â¬ ), nouns in the next four (Ã¢â¬Å"passion,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"faith,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"innocenceÃ¢â¬ ), and a return to pronouns in the final couplet (Ã¢â¬Å"thou ,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"allÃ¢â¬ ); adverbs expressing timeÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬Å"whenÃ¢â¬ X 4, Ã¢â¬Å"NowÃ¢â¬ X 2, Ã¢â¬Å"again,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"yetÃ¢â¬ ; adjectivesÃ¢â¬âthere are very few: why Well, despite the fact that GRAMMAR IS REALITY, we probably should get off the grammar wagon for the time being. There are other ways to look at how words in a poem are organized. Consider the way they get sounded when you read them. Listen carefully as you say the first two quatrains of the poem: Since thereÃ¢â¬â¢s no help, come let us kiss and part; Nay, I have done, you get no more of me, And I am glad, yea glad with all my heart That thus so cleanly I myself can free;4 Shake hands forever, cancel all our vows, And when we meet at any time again, Be it not seen in either of our brows That we one jot of love retain. 8 IÃ¢â¬â¢m hearing a lot of one-syllable words. The first three lines consist entirely of one-syllable words, and there are only seven two-syllable words in all of the eight lines. IÃ¢â¬â¢m also hearing a kind of clipped, short way of speaking in these lines. Partly this is due to (ALERT-ALERT: another technical term) alliteration, as in the hard Ã¢â¬Å"cÃ¢â¬ soundsÃ¢â¬âcome, kiss, cleanly, can, Shake, cancelÃ¢â¬âand Ã¢â¬Å"tÃ¢â¬ soundsÃ¢â¬âlet, part, get, heart, That, meet, time, it, not, That, jot, retain. Now listen to the way youÃ¢â¬â¢re sounding the words in the third quatrain: Now at the last gasp of loveÃ¢â¬â¢s latest breath, When, his pulse failing, passion speechless lies, When faith is kneeling by his bed of death, And innocence is closing up his eyes 12 IÃ¢â¬â¢m hearing a lot more two- and even a three-syllable word now, especially in ll. 10-12. Also, IÃ¢â¬â¢m more aware of a kind of Ã¢â¬Å"breathinessÃ¢â¬ than I was when saying the first eight lines. Partly this is due to the fact that IÃ¢â¬â¢m saying words here that require more breath than one-syllable words. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s another reason for the Ã¢â¬Å"breathiness,Ã¢â¬ and, yup, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a technical term for this, too, but letÃ¢â¬â¢s skip over it and listen to whatÃ¢â¬â¢s causing this Ã¢â¬Å"breathiness. Ã¢â¬ What do you notice when you say these words: gasp, breath, pulse, failing, passion, faith, bed, death? Feel a little puff of breath coming out of your mouth, a kind of Ã¢â¬Å"uh,Ã¢â¬ after you say the initial consonant of the word? ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s what IÃ¢â¬â¢m getting. I think thereÃ¢â¬â¢s another reason IÃ¢â¬â¢m feeling this Ã¢â¬Å"breathiness,Ã¢â¬ a reason not related to the sounds of words but to what theyÃ¢â¬â¢re saying. The speaker in this poem is painting a picture in the third quatrain by using images. LOOK OUT (another technical term): Ã¢â¬Å"imageryÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"imagesÃ¢â¬ can refer to literal, descriptive pictures in a piece of writing, as well as to figurative language like (technical alert) similes, metaphors, personifications, etc. , or to both. In the present case, the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s imagery is both literal and figurative. S/heÃ¢â¬â¢s creating a deathbed scene: thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a Ã¢â¬Å"last gasp of . . . breath,Ã¢â¬ a Ã¢â¬Å"pulse failing,Ã¢â¬ a Ã¢â¬Å"bed of death,Ã¢â¬ even the Ã¢â¬Å"closing upÃ¢â¬ of the dying personÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes by an attendant. All this is vivid, literal imagery. But whoÃ¢â¬â¢s dying? Someone named Ã¢â¬Å"love. Ã¢â¬ Who else is present in the scene? Persons named Ã¢â¬Å"passion,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"faith,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"innocenceÃ¢â¬ (in some printed versions of the poem these names are capitalized). These Ã¢â¬Å"personsÃ¢â¬ are abstract nouns that are being given the characteristics of humansÃ¢â¬âhence the term personification. So IÃ¢â¬â¢m getting both literal and figurative images, a double-whammy deathbed scene that strongly conveys the idea of the dying personÃ¢â¬â¢s final expiration. How does the imagery of the end of the poem compare with imagery at the beginning of the poem? I canÃ¢â¬â¢t see any figurative language at all in the first two quatrains, except for Ã¢â¬Å"you get no more of meÃ¢â¬ in l. 2, which suggests the idea of possession in a love relationship, and Ã¢â¬Å"Be it not seen in either of our browsÃ¢â¬ in l. 7, a (you got it) metonymy or figure of speech in which a part is substituted for the whole (brow for face). But for these exceptions, I can take more or less literally everything the speaker is saying. S/he and her/his partner are going to kiss and separateÃ¢â¬âthatÃ¢â¬â¢s all that can be done. The speaker is finished with the partner, and s/heÃ¢â¬â¢s glad that s/he can make this separation so neatly. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s simply a case of shaking hands goodbye, freeing each other of any obligation created by what the lovers might have said in the past (Ã¢â¬Å"I swear IÃ¢â¬â¢ll love you forever,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"ThereÃ¢â¬â¢ll never be another person in my life,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"YouÃ¢â¬â¢re the center of my world,Ã¢â¬ etc. ), and making sure that, whenever they meet in the future, no bystander will be able to detect the slightest trace of their former love. I think itÃ¢â¬â¢s time to start asking how these put-together parts work in action, that is, to see what dynamic process is operating in the poem. If the structure of this poem is a dynamic process, then you ought to be able to see changes, differences, shifts, as you move through the poem. In fact, if you compare the beginning of the poem with the end, you can see major shifts. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve already noted someÃ¢â¬âfor example, the change in verb moods from imperative and indicative in the first eight lines to indicative and subjunctive in the last six. Then thereÃ¢â¬â¢s the difference in the sounds the words make and the style of speaking you can hear, from the direct, concise, controlled tone of ll. 1-8 to the breathy, drawn out speech of the last part of the poem, where the speaker creates a vivid picture of Love at the point of death. How do these grammatical and tonal differences work together to reinforce the changes you can hear as the speaker confronts his/her soon-to-be-ex partner? In the first part of the poem the speaker is giving orders to his/her partner, using imperative verbs (Ã¢â¬Å"come let us kiss and part,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Shake hands,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"cancel,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"be it not seenÃ¢â¬ ) and making statements s/he intends the partner to take as true and literal, using indicative verbs (Ã¢â¬Å"thereÃ¢â¬â¢s no help,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I have done,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"you get,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I am glad,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I .Ã can freeÃ¢â¬ ). Then thereÃ¢â¬â¢s the alliteration of hard Ã¢â¬Å"cÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"tÃ¢â¬ sounds and the dominance of one-syllable words, creating a sense of directness. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s almost as if the speaker is trying to maintain emotional contr ol of the situation, as if s/he needed to suppress feelings of regret over the breakup. You can even see this in the use of Ã¢â¬Å"youÃ¢â¬ in l. 2, a formal style of address in early modern English. (In a similar situation, why would you formally address your soon-to-be-ex? ) There is also an effort at matter-of-factness here, evident in the avoidance of figurative language. All this is accomplished in a cumulative sentence, where you get the main message at the beginning (we know weÃ¢â¬â¢re breaking up, so letÃ¢â¬â¢s get on with it). In the last part of the poem the speaker is painting a vivid picture of Love at the point of death, surrounded by mourning figures (those personifications) attending at the bedside, and maybe, if s/he were willing, the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s partner. Note that indicative verbs are used in ll. 10-12 (in the subordinate Ã¢â¬Å"whenÃ¢â¬ clauses), then subjunctive verbs in the final couplet (Ã¢â¬Å"if thou wouldstÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"mightst .. recoverÃ¢â¬ ). The important thing to know about the subjunctive mood here is that it expresses an action that might take place, not one that does take place. Note also that in this final couplet the speaker addresses his/her partner by using the informal, intimate form Ã¢â¬Å"thouÃ¢â¬ instead of the formal Ã¢â¬Å"you. Ã¢â¬ In addition to the figurative language and significant gr ammatical differences between the beginning of the poem and this part, you now get longer words and the breathiness I noted. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s as if the speaker is encouraging his/her partner to imagine, to see, to feel what the death of their love is going to be like, complete with mourners and last gasps. This invitation to participate is clearly intended to have an emotional impact on the partner. The speaker is also feeling some emotion, I think. You can see this in something I havenÃ¢â¬â¢t spoken of before. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the shift from a regular di-da di-da rhythm in the first part of the poem to some pretty strong, off-beat rhythms in the last six lines. Look, for instance, at the beats in ll. 9-10 or l. 13. Something different is going on here, not the regular di-da di-da amble youÃ¢â¬â¢ve gotten used to. Why this shift? I think it may have to do with the emotion the speaker is starting to feel as s/he describes the deathbed scene. S/he is getting near the end of the poem, and if anything is going to happen other than shaking hands and saying goodbye, it had better happen soon. IÃ¢â¬â¢m sensing that emotions are getting much more noticeable. S/he even makes his/her partner the central figure, on whom loveÃ¢â¬â¢s life or death depends: Now if thou wouldst, when all have given him over, From death to life thou mightst him yet recover. All this happens in a periodic sentence, where you get the main message at the end, here in the final couplet (itÃ¢â¬â¢s up to you dear, if you want to bring love back . . . ) Well, I could go on, but I wonÃ¢â¬â¢tÃ¢â¬ânot for much longer, anyway. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve been trying to show you that the closer you look at a piece of literature, the more things happen. DraytonÃ¢â¬â¢s poemÃ¢â¬âany good poemÃ¢â¬âis super dynamic. However, you canÃ¢â¬â¢t capture this dynamic quality just by taking a photograph or making a list of the poemÃ¢â¬â¢s parts. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ve got to experience the dynamic quality of the poem in order to know its structure.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
1. | | | According to the right of privacy, employers can conceal the nature of the job before hiring an employee. | | Student Response| Correct Answer| False | False| | | | 2. | | | The concept of Ã¢â¬Å"human resource managementÃ¢â¬ implies that employees are interchangeable, easily replaced assets that must be managed like any other physical asset. | | Student Response| Correct Answer| False | False| | | | 3. | | | Currently, no federal laws outline how to use employee databases in order to protect employees' privacy while also meeting employers' and society's concerns for security. | |Student Response| Correct Answer| True | True| | | | 4. | | | The role of HR generalist is limited to recruitment and selection. | | Student Response| Correct Answer| False | False| | | | 5. | | | Which of the following is NOT a necessary quality of human resources? | | | Student Response| Correct Answer| A. | Human resources are valuable. | Ã | B. | Human resources are not imitable. | Ã | C. | Human resources are easily retainable. | Ã | D. | Human resources have no good substitute. | Ã | | | | 6. | | | Why has the job trend shifted to broadly defined jobs? | | | Student Response| Correct Answer|A. | Emphasis on innovation and quality| Ã | B. | Demand for low skilled workers| Ã | C. | Increased focus on simplifying jobs| Ã | D. | Lack of competition| Ã | | | | 7. | | | Job design is: | | | Student Response| Correct Answer| A. | the process of defining the way work will be performed and the tasks that a given job requires. | Ã | B. | the process of getting detailed information about jobs. | Ã | C. | the process by which the organization attempts to identify suitable employees. | Ã | D. | the planned effort to enable employees to learn job-related knowledge, skills, and behavior. | Ã | | | 8. | | | Organizational development and change are areas where HR professionals generally play only a supporting role. | | Student Response| Correct Ans wer| False | False| | | | 9. | | | As a type of resource, human capital refers to: | | | Student Response| Correct Answer| A. | the wages, benefits, and other costs incurred in support of HR functions within an organization. | Ã | B. | executive talent within an organization. | Ã | C. | the tax-deferred value of an employee's 401(k) plan. | Ã | D. | employee characteristics that add economic value to the organization. | Ã | | | | 10. | | According to the Gallup survey, which aspect of their jobs are most workers largely satisfied with? | | | Student Response| Correct Answer| A. | Health insurance benefits| Ã | B. | Retirement plans| Ã | C. | Relations with coworkers| Ã | D. | Amount of money earned| Ã | | | | 11. | | | The Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates that about one-tenth of employed individuals work in alternative employment arrangements. | | Student Response| Correct Answer| True | True| | | | 12. | | | The U. S. workforce is predicted to become mor e diverse in terms of ethnicity and racial background. | |Student Response| Correct Answer| True | True| | | | 13. | | | An HRIS can be used to perform primarily all of the following EXCEPT: | | | Student Response| Correct Answer| A. | support strategic decision-making. | Ã | B. | avoid litigation. | Ã | C. | evaluate programs and policies. | Ã | D. | motivate employees. | Ã | | | | 14. | | | When an organization undertakes a complete review of its critical work processes to make them more efficient and to be able to deliver higher quality, it is engaging in: | | | Student Response| Correct Answer| A. | outsourcing. | Ã | B. | high-performance work system design. | Ã |C. | total quality management. | Ã | D. | reengineering. | Ã | | | | 15. | | | What effect has the use of employee empowerment had upon recruiting? | | | Student Response| Correct Answer| A. | It has created an international labor market. | Ã | B. | It has substantially enhanced employment op portunities for women and minorities. | Ã | C. | It has shifted the focus away from technical skills to general cognitive and interpersonal skills. | Ã | D. | It has significantly reduced recruiting costs. | Ã | | | | 16. | | | How does e-HRM affect analysis and design of work? | | | Student Response| Correct Answer| A. Online simulations, including tests and e-mail, can measure job candidates' ability to deal with real-life business challenges. | Ã | B. | Employees can review salary and bonus information and seek information about and enroll in benefit plans. | Ã | C. | Employees in geographically dispersed locations can work together in virtual teams using video, e-mail, and the Internet. | Ã | D. | Online learning can bring training to employees anywhere, anytime. | Ã | | | | 17. | | | Privacy, as an important issue in e-HRM, might best be addressed by which one of the following technologies? | | | Student Response| Correct Answer|A. | A website| Ã | B. | An intranet| Ã | C. | A high-performance work system| Ã | D. | A shared service center| Ã | | | | 18. | | | When two companies join forces and become one entity, it is termed a: | | | Student Response| Correct Answer| A. | partnership. | Ã | B. | consolidation. | Ã | C. | merger. | Ã | D. | joint venture. | Ã | | | | 19. | | | Independent contractors are: | | | Student Response| Correct Answer| A. | persons who work for an organization only when they are needed. | Ã | B. | self-employed individuals with multiple clients. | Ã | C. | employed by a temporary agency. | Ã | D. employed directly by a company for a specific time. | Ã | | | | 20. | | | Which one of the following technologies lets a company rent space on a remote computer system and use the system's software to manage its HR activities, including security and upgrades? | | | Student Response| Correct Answer| A. | Application service providers| Ã | B. | Internet portals| Ã | C. | Shared service centers| Ã | D. | Business intelligence| Ã | | | | 21. | | | Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 applies to all organizations that employ 20 or more persons working 20 or more weeks a year and that are involved in interstate commerce. | Student Response| Correct Answer| False | False| | | | 22. | | | The Civil Rights Act of 1991: | | | Student Response| Correct Answer| A. | limits damage claims to lost benefits and attorney's fees and costs. | Ã | B. | requires violators to pay punitive damages that cover emotional pain and suffering. | Ã | C. | requires violators to pay compensatory damages, an amount beyond actual loss. | Ã | D. | limits the maximum punitive damages allowed, depending on the size of the organization. | Ã | | | | 23. | | | The EEOC is NOT the enforcement agency for the: | | | Student Response| Correct Answer| A. Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967. | Ã | B. | Rehabilitation Act of 1973. | Ã | C. | Equal Pay Act of 1963 . | Ã | D. | Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. | Ã | | | | 24. | | | Which legislative/regulatory actions are under the direct control of the President? | | | Student Response| Correct Answer| A. | Constitutional amendments| Ã | B. | Judicial decisions| Ã | C. | Legislation| Ã | D. | Executive orders| Ã | | | | 25. | | | Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits employers from discriminating against individuals based on all of the following EXCEPT: | | | Student Response| Correct Answer|A. | age. | Ã | B. | race. | Ã | C. | religion. | Ã | D. | national origin. | Ã | | | | 26. | | | Under disparate impact, the plaintiff must prove that the employer intended to discriminate. | | Student Response| Correct Answer| True | False| | | | 27. | | | Which of the following cases would most likely be subject to a lawsuit filed under the disparate treatment theory of discrimination? | | | Student Response| Correct Answer| A. | A group of females ar e laid off due to a downturn in business. | Ã | B. | Black applicants are being disproportionately rejected on the basis of a psychological test. | Ã | C. A black applicant is turned down for a job based on a handwriting analysis. | Ã | D. | A woman with school-aged children is rejected on the assumption that she will frequently be absent from work. | Ã | | | | 28. | | | An individual wishing to file a complaint with the EEOC or a similar state agency must file the complaint within _____ days of the incident. | | | Student Response| Correct Answer| A. | 30| Ã | B. | 60| Ã | C. | 90| Ã | D. | 180| Ã | | | | 29. | | | The three basic components of an affirmative action plan include all of the following EXCEPT: | | | Student Response| Correct Answer| A. utilization analysis. | Ã | B. | measurement tools. | Ã | C. | goals and timetables. | Ã | D. | action steps. | Ã | | | | 30. | | | When an individual is promised a positive outcome for submission to sex, or threatened with a negative outcome for failure to submit to sex, this is referred to as: | | | Student Response| Correct Answer| A. | disparate treatment. | Ã | B. | disparate impact. | Ã | C. | reverse discrimination. | Ã | D. | quid pro quo harassment. | Ã | | | | 31. | | | In terms of the Job Characteristics Model, the degree to which a job requires completing a Ã¢â¬Å"wholeÃ¢â¬ piece of work from beginning to end is: | | Student Response| Correct Answer| A. | autonomy. | Ã | B. | skill variety. | Ã | C. | task significance. | Ã | D. | task identity. | Ã | | | | 32. | | | For which of the following occupations is it easiest to implement telework? | | | Student Response| Correct Answer| A. | Production technician| Ã | B. | Quality management| Ã | C. | Machine operator| Ã | D. | Graphic designer| Ã | | | | 33. | | | In contrast to tasks, duties, and responsibilities, KSAOs are characteristics about people and are not directly observabl e. | | Student Response| Correct Answer| True | True| | | | 34. | | What is the SBAR method? | | | Student Response| Correct Answer| A. | Standardizing information at handoff points by describing the situation, giving the context, evaluation of the condition, and recommending action. | Ã | B. | Reducing the complexity of the work, making it so simple that almost anyone can be trained quickly and easily to perform the job. | Ã | C. | The study of the interface between individuals' physiology and the characteristics of the physical work environment. | Ã | D. | Enlarging jobs by combining several relatively simple jobs to form a job with a wider range of tasks. Ã | | | | 35. | | | In which of the following scenarios will workers be less motivated to perform the job? | | | Student Response| Correct Answer| A. | When the job requires a variety of skills to be performed. | Ã | B. | When the job requires completing the whole piece of work from beginning to end. | Ã | C. | When the job has minor impact on the lives of other people. | Ã | D. | When the job allows individuals to make decisions about the job. | Ã | | | | 36. | | | Which of the following would qualify as a compressed workweek? | | | Student Response| Correct Answer| A. Employees are required to be at work from 10:00 a. m. to 3:00 p. m. and can choose additional hours before/after this period. | Ã | B. | Two part-time employees work in different shifts and share the tasks of a specific job. | Ã | C. | Employees are permitted to work 10 hours a day, Monday through Thursday. | Ã | D. | Employees can choose to work away from a centrally located work area. | Ã | | | | 37. | | | When job analysis information is used to judge the relative worth of different jobs within an organization, the HR activity is termed: | | | Student Response| Correct Answer| A. performance evaluation. | Ã | B. | training and development. | Ã | C. | job evaluation. | Ã | D. | work redesign. | Ã | | | | 38. | | | Which of the following arrangements would qualify as job rotation? | | | Student Response| Correct Answer| A. | A receptionist is required to perform the jobs of file clerk and typist. | Ã | B. | Team members assemble components and also pack products into cases. | Ã | C. | Team members make decisions regarding how to resolve problems with customers. | Ã | D. | A manager participating in a meeting while on vacation with his family. | Ã | | | | 39. | | Which one of the following would be most appropriate when gathering information about clerical and technical job duties? | | | Student Response| Correct Answer| A. | A job analyst visits the workplace and watches/videotapes an employee performing the job. | Ã | B. | A manager/supervisor imagines what a well-done job would look like. | Ã | C. | A job analyst questions the peers about a particular job. | Ã | D. | A job analyst visits the workplace and asks employees to show what the job entail s. | Ã | | | | 40. | | | The Fleishman Job Analysis System provides an accurate picture of the ability requirements of a job. | Student Response| Correct Answer| True | True| | | | 41. | | | Which of the following is NOT true of outsourcing? | | | Student Response| Correct Answer| A. | Outsourcing is a logical choice when firms lack experience in an area. | Ã | B. | Outsourcing often involves ventures with foreign companies. | Ã | C. | Outsourcing is currently restricted to manufacturing and low-skilled jobs. | Ã | D. | Outsourcing is driven by economies of scale. | Ã | | | | 42. | | | Several forces are drawing out older workers' careers. Which of the following is NOT one of them? | | | Student Response| Correct Answer| A. The improved health of older people, combined with the decreased physical labor required by many jobs, makes working longer a viable option. | Ã | B. | The acute shortage of qualified younger workers has resulted in employers offering increased incentives to older workers to remain on the job. | Ã | C. | Age discrimination laws and the outlawing of mandatory retirement ages have limited organizations' ability to induce older workers to retire. | Ã | D. | Many workers fear Social Security will be cut, and they do not have adequate employer-sponsored pensions to cover anticipated costs. | Ã | | | | 43. | | How do organizations determine labor supply? | | | Student Response| Correct Answer| A. | Analyzing where the need for people with the necessary skills and experience will increase or decrease. | Ã | B. | Analyzing job categories held in one period and the proportion of employees in each of those job categories in a future period. | Ã | C. | Indicating a specific figure about what should happen with the job category or skill area and a specific timetable for when the results should be achieved. | Ã | D. | Planning elimination of large numbers of personnel with the goal of enhancing the organization's comp etitiveness. Ã | | | | 44. | | | According to research on recruitment, it is clear that recruiting sources are more important than characteristics of the vacancy for predicting job choice. | | Student Response| Correct Answer| True | False| | | | 45. | | | Job applicants find companies with employment-at-will practices more attractive than companies with due-process policies. | | Student Response| Correct Answer| True | False| | | | 46. | | | The largest share of new employees hired come from which external source? | | | Student Response| Correct Answer| A. | Career fairs| Ã | B. | Referrals| Ã |C. | College recruiting| Ã | D. | Advertisements| Ã | | | | 47. | | | In a survey of large well-known businesses, about one-third of open job positions were filled by: | | | Student Response| Correct Answer| A. | insiders. | Ã | B. | referrals. | Ã | C. | on campus recruitment. | Ã | D. | direct applicants. | Ã | | | | 48. | | | Overtime is most suited for short-te rm labor shortages. | | Student Response| Correct Answer| False | True| | | | 49. | | | Research demonstrates that realistic job previews significantly reduce employee turnover. | | Student Response| Correct Answer|True | False| | | | 50. | | | An organization's core competency is: | | | Student Response| Correct Answer| A. | a clear analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the organization's existing internal labor force. | Ã | B. | decisions about how an organization will carry out human resource management, including how it will fill job vacancies. | Ã | C. | a set of knowledge and skills that make the organization superior to competitors and create value for customers. | Ã | D. | a forecast of the proportion of employees who are members of various protected groups. | Ã | | | |