Wednesday, October 30, 2019


ADVANCED AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY; CASE STUDY ON ALLERGY - Essay Example However, the most common protein causing milk allergy is alpha S1-casein. Others may me caseins and whey. In case of egg allergy, the most common allergen is ovomucoid while others present in egg white are ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme. The egg yolk also contains some allergens that start an antibody reaction and among the most common are apovitillin, livetin and vosvetin. In case of peanut allergy the mostly common allergen found is a Lupine which is a legume and causes severe allergy in patients sensitive to it. 4. Th-2 like cells can be identified in the peripheral blood and lesions of atopic-dermatitis patients producing IL-4, 5, 13 and also IL-17 from Th17 cells. Explain the role(s) of these cytokines in allergy (10 Marks). The Th2 response is characterized by the release of several interleukins that ultimately goes through a chain of responses that leads to ‘humoral immunity’ by neutralizinge the non-cytolytic antibodies. The Th2-type cytokines include Interleukins 4, 5 and 13. IL 4, 5 and 13 are linked with the support of IgE and eosinophilic response in atopy. Other than this IL-17 has more of anti-inflammatory effect. Therefore, Th2 finds to be counteracting the Th1 medicated microbial action and thus produces a well balanced response to an immune attack (BMJ 2000). At homeostasis, Mast cells are the important cells that are present not only in skin but also in mucosal tissues. Both mast cells and quantity of eosinophils in mucosa are related to hyperactivity of lungs. There are several studies that suggest a correlation between mast cells and eosinophills that at some extent related to Eosinophil Cationic protein release. On stimulation, mast cells release IL-5 and PAF to enhance Eosinophil Cationic Protein (ECP) release from eosinophils. Since the number of mast cells is elevated in Asthmatic patients thus this assay is quite helpful in finding the allergic reaction. Hygiene Hypothesis suggests that the

Monday, October 28, 2019

Teachers and bullying Essay Example for Free

Teachers and bullying Essay â€Å"Bullying poisons the educational environment and affects the learning of every child. †(Olweus) Some of the common effects of bullying on children include sadness, depression, poor body image and eating disorders, skipping school, bad grades, headaches, stomach aches, sleeping trouble, thoughts and even acts of suicide. The study also looked at relationship between empathy of the teacher and how they handled bullying incidents. Among the teachers who thought that the incidents were not serious or thought that the victims misperceived the situation, it was found that those teachers who felt empathy for a child at least tried to understand the child’s experiences and factors that shaped his or her behaviours. The teachers who did not show empathy did not try to understand the children. The research also cites two teachers who described some children as crying fake tears while describing their experiences. The teachers did not try to comprehend the children’s experiences or behaviours. They termed the children as provocative victims who exhibit that both the peers and adults find irritating. When such children report victimisation and bullying experience, the school personnel tend to be unsympathetic and ignores it. This strengthens the findings by researchers such as Craig et al (2000), Eslea and Smith (2000), Kallestad and Olweus (2003) that defies empathy as a key factor in how the teachers characterise and respond to bullying incidents and also how they implement anti-bullying programs. The research found that even when the individuals are able to articulate a clear definition of bullying, other factors can influence how they characterise and respond to the bullying situation. This can have an affect on the children if they perceive that sufficient action has not been taken by the teachers. Hence it would be beneficial to provide the teachers information on the factors that can influence individual’s decisions about what constitutes bullying and not. Indirect bullying was found to be the most challenging for the teachers to recognise as well as to know whether and how to intervene. Most often the teachers were unaware that children were bullied and did not consider the child’s case serious. This was also found by researches Craig et al (2000), Hazler et al (2001). Research by Siann et al (1993) found that teachers neglected to consider repetition in most of their definitions. The research found out that the assumption of the teacher about the characteristics displayed by the victims prevented them from recognizing the victimised children when they did not match the assumptions made. Researches conducted by O’Moore (2000) found that focussing on the individual characteristic of children who bully or who are victimised can minimise the awareness of factors such as social context and can obscure other factors that are central to the bullying such as the victimised child’s experience with distress due to the bullying activity. Researches conducted by Siann et al (1993) and Ireland and Ireland (2000) found that that subjectivity, especially when related to the indirect bullying can severely influence the intervention negatively. The teachers doubting the child’s view may contribute to the further lack of disclosure to the teachers. This was found to be intertwined with empathy shown by the teacher. Craig et al (2000), Kallestad and Olweus (2003) found the important relationship between empathy and how teachers responded to the bully victims. It was identified that the teachers require assistance to become cognizant of their attitudes also that their views may not correspond to the views of the children. This helps teachers to understand that sometimes the child’s distress may be greater than that anticipated by the teacher. According to Landau, Milich, Harris and Larson (2001), this understanding can increase the teacher’s ability to recognise and intervene in bullying situation. This assumes greater importance considering that the educators need to protect children who are victimised but who may not recognise or feel that they are being bullied. The research also found out that majority of the teachers was themselves subjected to bullying as children. According to the teachers, this personal experience influenced how they reacted to the bullying of their students. Kallestad and Olweus (2003) found an association between the teachers who identified as bullied as a child with the responses and interventions they participated in. However a study conducted by Nicolaides et al (2002) indicates that there is no strong influence of bullying during the childhood on the response of the teacher to bullying. Gibbons, Lichtenbert and van Beusekom (1994) found that it is necessary for the educators and other professionals need to deal with their own feelings that the incidents may evoke in order to respond effectively to the bullying situations. According to the research conducted by Boulton (1997, Craig et al (2000), Townsend-Wiggins (2001), training is essential for the teachers to increase the confidence and competence to respond to the bullying activities. It was found that most of the teachers had not received any training and expressed their desire to undertake this type of training. (Mishna, F. et al, 2005).

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Essay --

This essay will be comparing and contrasting two magazines aimed at the female readership, and they are called Bitch Magazine and Cosmopolitan, with regards to their front pages, content and articles, their ideals of beauty, and feminism. With this essay, we will learn the extreme differences between two magazines Bitch is a Portland based independent, quarterly magazine, with a touting a tagline of a â€Å"feminist response to pop culture.† Founded in 1996, Bitch is published by Bitch Media, a non-profit multimedia organization. This magazine offers a feminist perspective and analysis of social and cultural trends, current political events, as well as forms of media such as television, movies, music, books, artwork, and advertising. Bitch magazine has around 50,000 readers. Cosmopolitan is an international magazine for women, and is the best-selling women’s magazine for decades. The notoriously risquà © magazine says it is â€Å"by women for women.† Also referred as Cosmo, the magazine was published in 1886 in the United States as a family magazine, and eventually became what we know of as a women’s magazine during the late 1960’s. This magazine is published by a for-profit organization called Hearst Magazine and has 64 international editions. It is currently being printed in 35 languages and is being distributed in more than 100 countries. Its boasts more than 3 million in paid circulation each and every month, and 115,000 paid subscribers. To begin with, I will be comparing the magazines front page’s headlines. Cosmopolitan is ridiculously formulaic and right from the get go you can tell from a comparison of previous front page headlines. Each issue meticulously follows the same predetermined formula. Their headlines are trashy and des... ...ncourages and instills the idea that women are amazingly great without changing themselves or suppressing their unique identities. This essay has compared and contrasted two magazines aimed at the female readership, and they are called Bitch Magazine and Cosmopolitan, with regards to their front pages, content and articles, their ideals of beauty, and feminism. Cosmopolitan is a magazine that gives harmful ideas to women about their sexuality, their health and happiness, and how it is supposedly dependent upon whether or not they fit into the unrealistic beauty standards that this magazine possesses. In divergence, Bitch Magazine teaches women to love themselves and to support each other no matter what. Bitch encourages women to understand that they are absolutely perfect just the way they are and that there is no need to change or suppress their given identities.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Economics- Asean

History of ASEAN: ASEAN was originally formed out of an organization called the Association of Southeast Asia (ASA), an alliance consisting of the Philippines, Malaysia, and Thailand that formed in 1961. As such, ASA is considered the predecessor to ASEAN. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a political and economic organization of countries located in Southeast Asia. ASEAN was formed on August 8, 1967 by the Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, Singapore, as a display of solidarity against Communist expansion in Vietnam and insurgency within their own borders. ASEAN itself was established on August 8, 1967, when foreign ministers of five countries— Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand met at the Thai Department of Foreign Affairs building in Bangkok and signed the ASEAN Declaration (also known as the Bangkok Declaration). The five foreign ministers, considered the organization's Founding Fathers, were Adam Malik of Indonesia, Narciso R. Ramos of the Philippines, Tun Abdul Razak of Malaysia, S. Rajaratnam of Singapore, and Thanat Khoman of Thailand. The founding fathers envisaged that the organization would eventually encompass all countries in Southeast Asia. Brunei Darussalam became the sixth member of the ASEAN when it joined on January 8, 1984, barely a week after the country became independent on January 1. It would be a further 11 years before ASEAN expanded from its core six members. Vietnam became the seventh member—and the first Communist member of ASEAN—on July 28, 1995, and Laos and Myanmar joined two years later in July 23, 1997. Cambodia was to have joined the ASEAN together with Laos and Myanmar, but was deferred due to the country's internal political struggle. Cambodia later joined on April 30, 1999, following the stabilization of its government. Thus was completed the ASEAN-10 —the organization of all countries in Southeast Asia. The ASEAN region has a population of about 500 million, a total area of 4. 5 million square kilometers, a combined gross domestic product of almost US$ 700 billion, and a total trade of about US$ 850 billion. Members of ASEAN: Member Countries | |[pic] |[pic] |[pic] |[pic] |[pic] | |Brunei Darussalam |Cambodia |Indonesia |Laos |Malaysia | | | | | | | |[pic] |[pic] |[pic] |[pic] |[pic] | |Myanmar |Philippines |Singapore |Thailand |Vietnam | The ASEAN was founded by five states, mostly from maritime Southeast Asia: the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. The British protectorate of Brunei joined the ASEAN six days after the country became independent f rom the United Kingdom on January 8, 1984. The mainland states of Vietnam, Laos and Myanmar were later admitted. Vietnam joined the ASEAN on July 28, 1995. Laos and Myanmar were admitted into the ASEAN on July 23, 1997. Cambodia became the newest member when it was admitted on April 30,1999. The Melanesian state of Papua New Guinea has observer status in the ASEAN. East Timor on the other hand is expected to formally apply for full membership at the 2006 39th Annual Ministerial Meeting of ASEAN Foreign Ministers in Kuala Lumpur. The association includes about 8% of the world's population and in 2003 it had a combined GDP of about USD$700 billion, growing at an average rate of around 4% per annum. The economies of member countries of ASEAN are diverse, although its major products include electronics, petroleum, and wood. The ASEAN countries are culturally rich. It includes more Muslims than any other geopolitical entity. About 240 million Muslims live mostly in Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei. Buddhism constitutes the main religion of mainland Southeast Asia and there are about 170 million Buddhists in Thailand, Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam and Singapore. Roman Catholicism is predominant in the Philippines. Through the Bali Concord 11 in 2003, Asean has subscribed to the notion of democratic peace, which means all member countries believe democratic processes will promote regional peace and stability. Also the non-democratic members all agreed that it was something all member states should aspire to. Objectives of ASEAN: The ASEAN Declaration states that the aims and purposes of the Association are: (1) To accelerate economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the region and 2) To promote regional peace and stability through abiding respect for justice and the rule of law in the relationship among countries in the region and adherence to the principles of the United Nations Charter. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES ASEAN Member Countries have adopted the followi ng fundamental principles in their relations with one another: †¢ Mutual respect for the independence, sovereignty, equality, territorial integrity, and national identity of all nations; †¢ The right of every State to lead its national existence free from external interference, subversion or coercion; †¢ Non-interference in the internal affairs of one another; †¢ Settlement of differences or disputes by peaceful manner; †¢ Renunciation of the threat or use of force; and †¢ Effective cooperation among themselves. General information of ASEAN: Members |[pic]  Brunei | | |[pic]  Cambodia | | |[pic]  Indonesia | | |[pic]  Laos | | |[pic]  Malaysia | | |[pic]  Myanmar | | |[pic]  Philippines | | |[pic]  Singapore | | |[pic]  Thailand | | |[pic]  Vietnam | |Seat of Secretariat |Jakarta | |Secretary General |Ong Keng Yong | |Area |4,480,000 km2 | |Population | | |  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Total  (2004) |592,000,000 | |  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Density |122. 3 peop le/km? | |GDP (2003) | | |  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Total |$2. 72 trillion (PPP) | |  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Total |$681 billion (Nominal) | |  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ GDP/capita |$4,044 (PPP) | |  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ GDP/capita |$1,267 (Nominal) | |Formation |Bangkok Declaration | |  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Signed | | | | | | |  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ 8 August 1967 | |Currencies |Bruneian Dollar (BND), | | |Rupiah (IDR), Riel (KHR), | | |Kip (LAK), Kyat (MMK), | | |Ringgit (MYR), Peso (PHP), | | |Singapore Dollar (SGD), | | |Baht (THB), Dong (VND) | The ASEAN Summit: The organization holds annual meetings in relation to economic, and cultural development of Southeast Asian countries. The ASEAN Leaders' Formal Summit was first held in Bali, Indonesia in 1976. At first there was no set schedule due to domestic issues in the member countries. In 1992, leaders decided to hold meetings every three years; and in 2001 it was decided to meet annually to address urgent issues affecting the region. Member nations were assigned to be the summit host in alphabetical order except in the case of Myanmar which dropped its 2006 hosting rights in 2004 due to pressure from the United States and the european union. The formal summit meets for three days. The usual itinerary is as follows: ? ASEAN leaders hold an internal organization meeting. ASEAN leaders hold a conference together with foreign ministers of the ASEAN Regional Forum. ? Leaders of 3 ASEAN Dialogue Partners (also known as ASEAN+3) namely China, Japan and South Korea hold a meeting with the ASEAN leaders. ? A separate meeting is set for leaders of 2 ASEAN Dialogue Partners (also known as ASEAN-CER) namely Australia an d New-Zealand. At the 11th ASEAN Summit in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, new meetings were scheduled. ? East Asia Summit – converging ASEAN and six dialogue partners namely China, Japan, South Korea, Australia, New Zealand and India. ? ASEAN-Russia Summit – meeting between ASEAN leaders and the President of Russia. ASEAN Formal Summit | |Number |Date |Country |Place | |1st |1976 February 23 – February 24 |[pic]  Indonesia |Bali | |2nd |1977 August 4 – August 5 |[pic]  Malaysia |Kuala Lumpur | |3rd |1987 December 14 – December 15 |[pic]  Philippines |Metro Manila | |4th |1992 January 27 – January 29 |[pic]  Singapore |Singapore | |5th |1995 December 14 – December 15 |[pic]  Thailand |Bangkok | |6th |1998 December 15 – December 16 |[pic]  Vietnam |Hanoi | |7th |2001 November 5 – November 6 |[pic]  Brunei |Bandar Seri Begawan | |8th |2002 November 4 – November 5 |[pic]  Cambodia |Phnom Penh | |9th |2003 Oc tober 7 – October 8 |[pic]  Indonesia |Bali | |10th |2004 November 29 – November 30 |[pic]  Laos |Vientiane | |11th |2005 December 12 – December 14 |[pic]  Malaysia |Kuala Lumpur | |12th |2006 December 11 – December 14 |[pic]  Philippines |Metro Cebu | |13th |2007 |[pic]  Singapore |Singapore | |14th |2008 |[pic]  Thailand | |15th |2009 |[pic]  Vietnam | | Logo and Flag of ASEAN: [pic] The New ASEAN logo represents a stable, peaceful, united and dynamic ASEAN. The colors of the logo — blue, red, white and yellow — represent the main colors of the crests of all the ASEAN countries. The blue represents peace and stability. Red depicts courage and dynamism. White shows purity and yellow symbolizes prosperity. The ten stalks of padi represent the dream of ASEAN's Founding Fathers for an ASEAN comprising all the ten countries in Southeast Asia bound together in friendship and solidarity. The circle represents the unity of ASEAN. [pi c] Flag of ASEAN In 2003, the ASEAN Leaders resolved that an ASEAN Community shall be established comprising three pillars, namely, ASEAN Security Community, ASEAN Economic Community and ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community. ASEAN SECURITY COMMUNITY To build on what has been constructed over the years in the field of political and security cooperation, the ASEAN Leaders have agreed to establish the ASEAN Security Community (ASC). The ASC shall aim to ensure that countries in the region live at peace with one another and with the world in a just, democratic and harmonious environment. It has the following components: political development; shaping and sharing of norms; conflict prevention; conflict resolution; post-conflict peace building; and implementing mechanisms. It will be built on the strong foundation of ASEAN processes, principles, agreements, and structures, which evolved over the years. ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY Its goal is to create a stable, prosperous and highly competitive ASEAN economic region in which there is a free flow of goods, services, investment and a free flow of capital, equitable economic development and reduced poverty and socio-economic disparities in year 2020. The ASEAN Economic Community shall establish ASEAN as a single market and production base, turning the diversity that characterizes the region into opportunities for business complementation and making the ASEAN a more dynamic and stronger segment of the global supply chain. ASEAN’s strategy shall consist of the integration of ASEAN and enhancing ASEAN’s economic competitiveness. In moving towards the ASEAN Economic Community, ASEAN has agreed on the following: †¢ Institute new mechanisms and measures to strengthen the implementation of its existing economic initiatives including the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA), ASEAN Framework Agreement on Services (AFAS) and ASEAN Investment Area (AIA); †¢ Accelerate regional integration in the following priority sectors by 2010: air travel, agro-based products, automotives, e-commerce, electronics, fisheries, healthcare, rubber-based products, textiles and apparels, tourism, and wood-based products. Facilitate movement of business persons, skilled labor and talents; and strengthen the institutional mechanisms of ASEAN, including the improvement of the existing ASEAN Dispute Settlement Mechanism to ensure expeditious and legally-binding resolution of any economic disputes. Other major integrati on-related economic activities of ASEAN include the following: †¢ Roadmap for Financial and Monetary Integration of ASEAN in four areas, namely, capital market development, capital account liberalization, liberalization of financial services and currency cooperation; †¢ Trans-ASEAN transportation network consisting of major inter-state highway and railway networks, including the Singapore to Kunming Rail-Link, principal ports, and sea lanes for maritime traffic, inland waterway transport, and major civil aviation links; †¢ Roadmap for Integration of Air Travel Sector; Interoperability and interconnectivity of national telecommunications equipment and services, including the ASEAN Telecommunications Regulators Council Sectoral Mutual Recognition Arrangement (ATRC-MRA) on Conformity Assessment for Telecommunications Equipment; †¢ Trans-ASEAN energy networks, which consist of the ASEAN Power Grid and the Trans-ASEAN Gas Pipeline Projects; †¢ Initiative for ASEA N Integration (IAI) focusing on infrastructure, human resource development, information and communications technology, and regional economic integration primarily in the CLMV countries; †¢ Visit ASEAN Campaign and the private sector-led ASEAN Hip-Hop Pass to promote intra-ASEAN tourism; and †¢ Agreement on the ASEAN Food Security Reserve. ASEAN SOCIO-CULTURAL COMMUNITY The ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community envisages a Southeast Asia bonded together in partnership as a community of caring societies and founded on a common regional identity. The Community shall foster cooperation in social development aimed at raising the standard of living of disadvantaged groups and the rural population, and shall seek the active involvement of all sectors of society, in particular women, youth, and local communities. ASEAN shall ensure that its work force shall be prepared for, and benefit from, economic integration by investing more resources for basic and higher education, training, science and technology development, job creation, and social protection. ASEAN shall further intensify cooperation in the area of public health, including in the prevention and control of infectious and communicable diseases. The development and enhancement of human resources is a key strategy for employment generation, alleviating poverty and socio-economic disparities, and ensuring economic growth with equity. Among the on-going activities of ASEAN in this area include the following: †¢ ASEAN Work Programme for Social Welfare, Family, and Population; †¢ ASEAN Work Programme on HIV/AIDS; †¢ ASEAN Work Programme on Community-Based Care for the Elderly; †¢ ASEAN Occupational Safety and Health Network; ASEAN Work Programme on Preparing ASEAN Youth for Sustainable Employment and Other Challenges of Globalization; †¢ ASEAN University Network (AUN) promoting collaboration among seventeen member universities ASEAN; †¢ ASEAN Students Exchange Programme, Youth Cultural Forum, and the ASEAN Young Speakers Forum; †¢ The Annual ASEAN Culture Week, ASEAN Youth Camp and ASEAN Quiz; †¢ ASEAN Media Exchange Programme; and †¢ Framework for Environmentally Sustainable Cities (ESC) and ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution. EXTERNAL RELATIONS: The ASEAN Vision 2020 affirmed an outward-looking ASEAN playing a pivotal role in the international community and advancing ASEAN’s common interests. Building on the Joint Statement on East Asia Cooperation of 1999, cooperation between the Southeast and Northeast Asian countries has accelerated with the holding of an annual summit among the leaders of ASEAN, China, Japan, and the Republic of Korea (ROK) within the ASEAN Plus Three process. ASEAN Plus Three relations continue to expand and deepen in the areas of security dialogue and cooperation, transnational crime, trade and investment, environment, finance and monetary, agriculture and forestry, energy, tourism, health, labor, culture and the arts, science and technology, information and communication technology, social welfare and development, youth, and rural development and poverty eradication. There are now thirteen ministerial-level meetings under the ASEAN plus Three process. Bilateral trading arrangements have been or are being forged between ASEAN Member Countries and China, Japan, and the ROK. These arrangements will serve as the building blocks of an East Asian Free Trade Area as a long term goal. ASEAN continues to develop cooperative relations with its Dialogue Partners, namely, Australia, Canada, China, the European Union, India, Japan, the ROK, New Zealand, the Russian Federation, the United States of America, and the United Nations Development Programme. ASEAN also promotes cooperation with Pakistan in some areas of mutual interest. Consistent with its resolve to enhance cooperation with other developing regions, ASEAN maintains contact with other inter-governmental organizations, namely, the Economic Cooperation Organization, the Gulf Cooperation Council, the Rio Group, the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, the South Pacific Forum, and through the recently established Asian-African Sub-Regional Organization Conference. Most ASEAN Member Countries also participate actively in the activities of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM), and the East Asia-Latin America Forum (EALAF). ASEAN Vision â€Å"2020†: This was said at one of its summit. We, the Heads of State/Government of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, gather today in Kuala Lumpur to reaffirm our commitment to the aims and purposes of the Association as set forth in the Bangkok Declaration of 8 August 1967, in particular to promote regional cooperation in Southeast Asia in the spirit of equality and partnership and thereby contribute towards peace, progress and prosperity in the region. We in ASEAN have created a community of Southeast Asian nations at peace with one another and at peace with the world, rapidly achieving prosperity for our peoples and steadily improving their lives. Our rich diversity has provided the strength and inspiration to us to help one another foster a strong sense of community. We are now a market of around 500 million people with a combined gross domestic product of US$600 billion. We have achieved considerable results in the economic field, such as high economic growth, stability and significant poverty alleviation over the past few years. Members have enjoyed substantial trade and investment flows from significant liberalization measures. We resolve to build upon these achievements. Now, as we approach the 21st century, thirty years after the birth of ASEAN, we gather to chart a vision for ASEAN on the basis of today's realities and prospects in the decades leading to the Year 2020. That vision is of ASEAN as a concert of Southeast Asian nations, outward looking, living in peace, stability and prosperity, bonded together in partnership in dynamic development and in a community of caring societies. ASEAN shall have, by the year 2020, established a peaceful and stable Southeast Asia where each nation is at peace with itself and where the causes for conflict have been eliminated, through abiding respect for justice and the rule of law and through the strengthening of national and regional resilience. STRUCTURES & MECHANISMS: The highest decision-making organ of ASEAN is the Meeting of the ASEAN Heads of State and Government. The ASEAN Summit is convened every year. The ASEAN Ministerial Meeting (Foreign Ministers) is held annually. Ministerial meetings on the following sectors are also held regularly: agriculture and forestry, economics (trade), energy, environment, finance, health, information, investment, labor, law, regional haze, rural development and poverty alleviation, science and technology, social welfare, telecommunications, transnational crime, transportation, tourism, youth. Supporting these ministerial bodies are committees of senior officials, technical working groups and task forces. To support the conduct of ASEAN’s external relations, ASEAN has established committees composed of heads of diplomatic missions in the following capitals: Beijing, Berlin, Brussels, Canberra, Geneva, Islamabad, London, Moscow, New Delhi, New York, Ottawa, Paris, Riyadh, Seoul, Tokyo, Washington D. C. and Wellington. The Secretary-General of ASEAN is appointed on merit and accorded ministerial status. The Secretary-General of ASEAN, who has a five-year term, is mandated to initiate, advise, coordinate, and implement ASEAN activities. The members of the professional staff of the ASEAN Secretariat are appointed on the principle of open recruitment and region-wide competition. ASEAN has several specialized bodies and arrangements promoting inter-governmental cooperation in various fields including the following: ASEAN Agricultural Development Planning Centre, ASEAN-EC Management Centre, ASEAN Centre for Energy, ASEAN Earthquake Information Centre, ASEAN Foundation, ASEAN Poultry Research and Training Centre, ASEAN Regional Centre for Biodiversity Conservation, ASEAN Rural Youth Development Centre, ASEAN Specialized Meteorological Centre, ASEAN Timber A Partnership in Dynamic Development: We resolve to chart a new direction towards the year 2020 called, ASEAN 2020: Partnership in Dynamic Development which will forge closer economic integration within ASEAN. We pledge to sustain ASEAN's high economic performance by building upon the foundation of our existing cooperation efforts, consolidating our achievements, expanding our collective efforts and enhancing mutual assistance. We will create a stable, prosperous and highly competitive ASEAN Economic Region in which there is a free flow of goods, services and investments, a freer flow of capital, equitable economic development and reduced poverty and socio-economic disparities. We resolve, inter-alia, to undertake the following: †¢ Maintain regional macroeconomic and financial stability by promoting closer consultations in macroeconomic and financial policies. Advance economic integration and cooperation by undertaking the following general strategies: fully implement the ASEAN Free Trade Area and accelerate liberalization of trade in services, realize the ASEAN Investment Area by 2010 and free flow of investments by 2020; intensify and expand sub-regional cooperation in existing and new sub-regional growth areas; further consolidate and expand extra-ASEAN regional linkages for mutual benefit cooperate to strengthen the multilateral trading system, and reinforce the role of the business sector as the engine of growth. †¢ Promote a modern and competitive small and medium enterprises (SME) sector in ASEAN which will contribute to the industrial development and efficiency of the region. †¢ Accelerate the free flow of professional and other services in the region. †¢ Promote financial sector liberalization and closer cooperation in money and capital market, tax, insurance and customs matters as well as closer consultations in macroeconomic and financial policies. Accelerate the development of science and technology including information technology by establishing a regional information technology network and centers of excellence for dissemination of and easy access to data and information. †¢ Establish interconnecting arrangements in the field o f energy and utilities for electricity, natural gas and water within ASEAN through the ASEAN Power Grid and a Trans-ASEAN Gas Pipeline and Water Pipeline, and promote cooperation in energy efficiency and conservation, as well as the development of new and renewable energy resources. †¢ Enhance food security and international competitiveness of food, agricultural and forest products, to make ASEAN a leading producer of these products, and promote the forestry sector as a model in forest management, conservation and sustainable development. meet the ever increasing demand for improved infrastructure and communications by developing an integrated and harmonized trans-ASEAN transportation network and harnessing technology advances in telecommunication and information technology, especially in linking the planned information highways/multimedia corridors in ASEAN, promoting open sky policy, developing multi-modal transport, facilitating goods in transit and integrating telecommunica tions networks through greater interconnectivity, coordination of frequencies and mutual recognition of equipment-type approval procedures. †¢ Enhance human resource development in all sectors of the economy through quality education, upgrading of skills and capabilities and training. †¢ Work towards a world class standards and conformance system that will provide a harmonized system to facilitate the free flow of ASEAN trade while meeting health, safety and environmental needs. †¢ Use the ASEAN Foundation as one of the instruments to address issues of unequal economic development, poverty and socioeconomic disparities. promote an ASEAN customs partnership for world class standards and excellence in efficiency, professionalism and service, and uniformity through harmonized procedures, to promote trade and investment and to protect the health and well-being of the ASEAN community, †¢ enhance intra-ASEAN trade and investment in the mineral sector and to contribute towards a technologically competent ASEAN through closer networking and sharing of information on mineral and geosciences as well as to enhance cooperation and partnership with dialogue partners to facilitate the development and transfer of technology in the mineral sector, particularly in the downstream research and the geosciences and to develop appropriate mechanism for these. USE OF THE NAME â€Å"ASEAN†: The Presidium Minister for Political Affairs/Minister for Foreign Affairs of Indonesia, the Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia, the Secretary of Foreign Affairs of the Philippines, the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Singapore, and the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Thailand do hereby declare the establishment of an association for regional cooperation among the countries of Southeast Asia to be known as the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). – ASEAN Declaration, Bangkok, 8 August 1967 I. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS The ASEAN Standing Committee, at its meeting in Manila on 16-18 June 1986, adopted the Guidelines for ASEAN Relations with Non-Governmental Organizations, which included a provision on the use of the name â€Å"ASEAN. † The relevant provision states that, an affiliated NGO â€Å"may use the name ‘ASEAN’ and display the official ASEAN emblem in correspondence, communications, and at its official meetings so long as the displaying of such emblem is non-commercial in nature. † II. PRIVATE SECTOR The ASEAN Standing Committee, at its meeting in Jakarta on 10 January 1979, adopted the Guidelines on the Use of the name â€Å"ASEAN† by the Private Sector. Below are the main points: Member countries shall exercise some measure of control on the use of the name â€Å"ASEAN† by the private sector for business purposes. This administrative control shall be exercised where official registration is required by law for setting up a company, such as a trading company, whether as a corporation or sole proprietorship. Any request for the use of the name â€Å"ASEAN† should satisfy the following conditions: (i)The entity should be regional in character involving all members of ASEAN; (ii)The name â€Å"ASEAN† should not be brought into disrepute by its usage; iii)The entity should be indigenous to ASEAN; (iv)The usage of ASEAN should not have any negative effect on the aims and objectives of ASEAN; The entity should have the sponsorship of any of the ASEAN Nation al Secretariats. ASEAN Regional Forum: [pic] ASEAN Regional Forum: —  ASEAN countries —  Other ASEAN Regional Forum participants. ASEAN regularly conducts dialogue meetings with other countries and an organization, collectively known as the ASEAN dialogue partners during the ASEAN Regional Forum(ARF). The ASEAN Regional Forum is an informal multilateral dialogue of 25 members that seeks to address security issues in the Asia-Pacific region. The ARF met for the first time in 1994. The current participants in the ARF are as follows: ASEAN, Australia, Canada, People's Republic of China, European Union, India, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Mongolia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Russia, East Timor, and the United States. Bangladesh was added to ARF as the 26th member, starting from July 28, 2006. Outlook of ASEAN: Realizing the vision of ASEAN’s founding fathers of an association of all Southeast Asian countries is thus hardly the end of ASEAN history. It is rather a call for a renewed commitment to broader regional solidarity among the peoples of Southeast Asia. ASEAN has learned to draw strength from unity not only among governments but also among its diverse peoples. The ASEAN experience and the ASEAN process must reach out to all spectra of our societies,† said former Foreign Minister Prachaub Chaiyasan of Thailand in 1997. â€Å"Through ASEAN this region will become a grassroots-supported and close-knit community bound together no t only by common interests but by shared values, identity and aspirations among our peoples. † ASEAN faces the future with confidence. Its strong foundation and remarkable achievements will serve Southeast Asia well as it pursues higher goals in the new millennium. ASEAN’s leaders have reaffirmed that co-operative peace and shared prosperity should be the association’s basic goals. Towards these goals ASEAN shall remain a driving force in building a more predictable and constructive pattern of relationships among nations in the Asia-Pacific region. ASEAN will move towards greater economic integration, emphasizing sustainable and equitable growth. ASEAN will nourish a caring and cohesive Southeast Asian community, whose strength lies in fostering a common regional identity and a shared vision of the future. Overview: The ASEAN declaration of 1967 exhorts the association to attain its economic, social and cultural aims through â€Å"joint endeavors† and â€Å"active collaboration and mutual assistance. † Regarding its political objective of regional peace and stability, however, the Declaration contains no equivalent exhortation. It speaks only of â€Å"respect for justice and the rule of law† and â€Å"adherence to the principles of the United Nations Charter. † It makes no impassioned call for the ASEAN member states to take common political positions. The restraint with which ASEAN’s founders expressed the political aim of their brainchild was understandable. They did not want their intentions to be misunderstood. They did not want ASEAN to be mistaken for a military grouping among political allies-as some of its predecessors had been. Moreover, at the time of ASEAN’s conception, Southeast Asia was beset by instability aggravated by underdevelopment. The ASEAN pioneer states themselves were just beginning to learn to trust one another, while nursing he hangover of bitter disputes of recent years. The newborn ASEAN was, therefore, presented as a sub regional grouping for economic, social and cultural cooperation. But security concerns and political purposes were never far from th e ASEAN founders’ intentions. As a key figure in ASEAN diplomacy, former Indonesian Foreign Minister Ali Alatas has pointed out, â€Å"The truth is that politics attended ASEAN at its birth. It was the convergence in political outlook among the five original members, their shared convictions on national priority objectives and on how best to secure these objectives in the evolving strategic environment of East Asia which impelled them to form ASEAN. ASEAN spent almost the whole first decade of its existence developing and refining the concepts that form the basis of its work and methods of cooperation. In those early years its ministerial and other meetings became occasions for fostering trust and goodwill, for developing the habit of working together informally and openly. In the process ASEAN leaders realized that their countries could never attain national stability and socioeconomic development if Southeast Asia-afflicted with strife and cold War rivalry-remained in poli tical turmoil. The ASEAN member states strove for resilience, both individually as nations and collectively as a sub regional grouping; for they knew the association would not amount to much if external powers regularly intervened in Southeast Asian affairs. At the First ASEAN Summit in Bali in February 1976, the member countries signed the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia, which spelled out the basic principles for their relations with one another and the conduct of the association’s programme for cooperation: †¢ Mutual respect for the independence, sovereignty, equality, territorial integrity and national identity of all nations; †¢ The right of every state to lead its national existence free from external interference, subversion or coercion; †¢ Noninterference in the internal affairs of one another; †¢ Settlement of differences or disputes by peaceful means; †¢ Renunciation of the threat or use of force; and †¢ Effective cooperation among themselves. The treaty envisaged these principles as the foundation of a strong Southeast Asian community. It stated that ASEAN political and security dialogue and cooperation should aim to promote regional peace and stability by enhancing regional resilience. And this resilience shall be achieved by cooperation in all fields among the member countries. Following these principles and guidelines, Southeast Asia embarked on a journey towards regional solidarity that has been steady and sure. Through political dialogue and confidence building, ASEAN has prevented occasional bilateral tensions from escalating into confrontation among its members. And by 1999 the vision of an ASEAN is including all the countries of Southeast Asia as members had been achieved. Achievements in Political Collaboration: Since 1967 ASEAN has forged major political accords that have contributed greatly to regional peace and stability, and to its relations with other countries, regions and organizations. Foremost among these are: Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality. On 27 November 1971 the foreign ministers of the then five ASEAN members met in Kuala Lumpur and signed the Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality (ZOPFAN) Declaration. It commits all ASEAN members to â€Å"exert efforts to secure the recognition of and respect for Southeast Asia as a Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality, free from any manner of interference by outside powers,† and to â€Å"make concerted efforts to broaden the areas of cooperation, which would contribute to their strength, solidarity and closer relationship. ZOPFAN recognizes â€Å"the right of every state, large or small, to lead its national existence free from outside interference in its internal affairs as this interference will adversely affect its freedom, independence and integrity. † Another five years passed before the next major development in political cooperation came about-the First ASEAN Summit in Bali, when the ASEAN leaders signed three major documents: the Declaration of ASEAN Concord, the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia, and the Agreement Establishing the ASEAN Secretariat. Declaration of ASEAN Concord. Departing from the more circumspect Bangkok Declaration, the Declaration of ASEAN Concord stated for the first time that the member countries would expand political cooperation. It also adopted principles for regional stability and a programme of action for political cooperation. The programme called for holding ASEAN summits among the heads of government; signing the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia; settling intraregional disputes â€Å"by peaceful means as soon as possible†; improving the ASEAN machinery to strengthen political cooperation; studying how to develop judicial cooperation including the possibility of an ASEAN extradition treaty; and strengthening political solidarity by promoting the harmonization of views, coordinating positions and, where possible and desirable, taking common action. Treaty of Amity and Cooperation (TAC) in Southeast Asia. TAC raised the provisions of the Kuala Lumpur Declaration to the level of a treaty to which other Southeast Asian countries could accede and with which the nonregional countries could associate themselves. The treaty enshrines the following principles: mutual respect for one another’s sovereignty; noninterference in internal affairs; the peaceful settlement of intraregional d isputes; and effective cooperation. The treaty also provides for a code of conduct for the peaceful settlement of disputes. And it mandates the establishment of a high council made up of ministerial representatives from the parties as a dispute-settlement mechanism. To this day, TAC remains the only indigenous regional diplomatic instrument providing a mechanism and processes for the peaceful settlement of disputes. Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone. At the ASEAN Summit in Bangkok on 15 December 1995, the leaders of all the ten Southeast ASEAN countries signed the Treaty on the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone (SEANWFZ). As a key component of ZOPFAN, the SEANWFZ treaty ex-presses ASEAN’s determination to contribute to-wards general and complete nuclear disarmament and the promotion of international peace and security. It also aims to protect the region from environmental pollution and the hazards posed by radio-active waste and other toxic materials. The SEANWFZ treaty came into force on 27 March 1997. ASEAN is now negotiating with the five nuclear-weapon states on the terms of their accession to the protocol which lays down their commitments under the treaty. ASEAN has put in place the SEANWFZ Commission and the Executive Committee of the commission to oversee implementation of the treaty’s provisions and ensure compliance with them. The association adopted procedural and financial rules governing the work of the treaty bodies at the seco0nd meeting of the SEANWFZ Commission in Bangkok in July 2000. Settlement of the Cambodian Conflict. One of the most important chapters in the history of ASEAN diplomacy took place during the Cambodian conflict. The ASEAN-sponsored resolutions at the UN General Assembly, which called for a durable and comprehensive political settlement in Cambodia, received consistent support from the international community. With Indonesia as interlocutor, ASEAN maintained its dialogue with all parties to the conflict. This eventually led to the Jakarta Informal Meetings at which the four Cambodian factions discussed peace and national reconciliation. The process proved to be protracted, requiring the help of many states and the United Nations. It extended to the early 1990s, culminating in the 19-nation Paris Conference on Cambodia, which was chaired by France and Indonesia. On 23 October 1991 the Paris Conference on Cambodia produced the Comprehensive Political Settlement of the Cambodian Conflict. This settlement paved the way for the formation of the Cambodian Supreme National Council, in which four factions participated, and the holding of elections supervised by the United Nations Transitional Authority on Cambodia. Nineteen ninety-nine will be remembered as the year when the vision of ASEAN’s founders to build an association comprising all the Southeast Asian countries was fully realized. The admission of Cambodia to ASEAN on 30 April 1999 in Ha Noi completed the association’s efforts towards regional cohesion, 32 years after the original five members-Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines and Thailand-first got together. Insular and peninsular Southeast Asia and all of mainland Southeast Asia are now joined in one association. The region is no longer divided between ASEAN and non-ASEAN, between mainland and maritime Southeast Asia. Recent Issues and Concerns: It is in ASEAN’s ability and readiness to resolve political differences affecting its members and other countries in the Asia-Pacific region that the association’s commitment to political co-operation is put to the test. More often than not, that commitment has been affirmed and the ASEAN approach to solving potentially explosive issues vindicated. These issues include territorial and jurisdictional disputes in the South China Sea; self-determination for East Timor; nuclear proliferation in Northeast Asia and South Asia; weapons of mass destruction; and the impact of globalization. South China Sea. Like many other parts of the world, Southeast Asia faces territorial disputes among its members and nearby states. In these disputes ASEAN has consistently pursued a policy of cooperation in seeking the peaceful settlement of differences. In 1992, recognizing that any conflict in the South China Sea could directly affect peace and stability in the region, ASEAN issued a declaration â€Å"urging all parties concerned to exercise restraint in order to create a positive climate for the eventual resolution of all disputes. ASEAN further â€Å"emphasized the necessity to resolve all sovereignty and jurisdictional issues about the South China Sea by peaceful means, without resort to force. † The Manila Declaration of 1992, which pr oposed a modus vivendi in the South China Sea, represents one of the most remarkable demonstrations of political solidarity among ASEAN members on strategic issues of common concern. On the suggestion of ASEAN, ASEAN and China have been working on a Code of Conduct to govern state behavior in the South China Sea. The ASEAN-China Senior Officials’ Consultations Working Group on the Code of Conduct in the South China Sea met four times this year to negotiate a working draft code of conduct covering principles and norms of state-to-state relations, peaceful settlement of disputes and cooperation. East Timor. ASEAN supported the implementation of the agreement between Indonesia and Portugal on the question of East Timor and the 5 May 1999 agreements between the United Nations and the Indonesian and Portuguese governments about the modalities for the popular consultations of the East Timorese. The consultations were held on 30 August 1999. As violence rocked the territory following the referendum, the ASEAN leaders who were in Auckland for the APEC Economic Leaders’ Meeting gathered to address the problem. Some of them agreed to contribute, at great expense, to the International Force for East Timor, which was formed upon Indonesia’s invitation. The UN Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) was subsequently set up, with a Filipino general taking over the command of the peacekeeping force. A Thai general has since succeeded him. Other ASEAN members have been extending humanitarian and other forms of assistance to East Timor. ASEAN has called on the international community to help East Timor achieve peace, stability and prosperity during its transition to full independence, which would contribute to the stability of Southeast Asia. Following the separation of East Timor from Indonesia, ASEAN has declared its position that a united, democratic and economically prosperous Indonesia is basic to the maintenance of regional security. In this context, the association emphasized its support for Indonesia’s territorial integrity. Northeast Asia. At the Seventh ASEAN Regional Forum in July 2000, the participation for the first time of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea in the ARF process was welcomed-a significant step in the rapid evolution of the situation on the Korean Peninsula and thus in the security environment of the Asia-Pacific region. North Korea’s ARF membership provides additional opportunities for dialogue and exchanges between North Korea and those ARF countries with key roles in the Korean situation. ASEAN expressed support for the historic summit between the North and South Korean leaders, held in Pyongyang on 13-15 June 2000. It also commended the 15 June North-South Joint Declaration, the first agreement signed at the highest level since the division of the Korean Peninsula in 1945. Challenges of globalization. The Seventh ASEAN Regional Forum observed that although the security outlook for the region remains positive, uncertainties and challenges-particularly those posed by globalization-would increasingly require ARF’s attention. The Seventh ARF also considered the economic, social and human components of security and the need to promote regional cooperation in dealing with regional security issues. It discussed both the positive effects and the repercussions of globalization, including greater economic interdependence among nations and the multiplication of security threats like transnational crime. In responding to globalization, ARF felt it necessary for nations to strengthen their individual and collective capacities to meet the challenges affecting their common security. ARF has reaffirmed the need for Southeast Asian countries to continue efforts, through dialogue and cooperation at national and international levels, in dealing with the economic, social and political impacts of globalization so as to ensure sustained economic and social development. ASEAN and intra-ASEAN relations: weathering the storm? In April 1999, ASEAN formally admitted Cambodia thereby completing its declared goal of grouping together all ten Southeast Asian countries under its umbrella. This was the culminating event in the latest phase of ASEAN's enlargement. This process, however, had been problematic from the start. The entry of Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Vietnam without any clear criteria for admission has raised questions regarding the preparedness of these countries to participate in ASEAN. More importantly, it led to strains in ASEAN's relations with its dialogue partners over the legitimacy of some of the governments in power in these countries. The was further complicated by the economic upheaval caused by the financial crisis which struck Southeast Asia in 1997. The impact of these events on ASEAN has put into question the association's growing role as a leading player in Asia-Pacific affairs. More importantly, it has raised issues which are central to ASEAN's continued existence. Bibliography: 1. www. google. com. 2. www. ASEANsec. org. 3. Introductory Managerial Economics-II (By D. M. Mithani)

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

My Reaction to Apollo 13

The movie Apollo13 is great but little kind of boring. Tom Hanks is a great artist! He is my idol. One of his great movie is Forrest Gump. By the way, The Apollo13 is America’s third moon landing mission. En route, an onboard explosion deprives their spacecraft of most of its oxygen supply and electric power, forcing  NASA's flight controllers to abort the Moon landing, and turning the mission into a struggle to get the three men home safely. I thought Jim’s wife was his mother. Cause, look to old for me. Just kidding, Well done! My Reaction to Armageddon Armageddon is the best movie of all the three that you gave to us Ma’am! There’s a love story and it is based on true story life. At first, All of the scene was so hilarious but then at last, So many lives to sacrifice the tragedy. Only three of crew was survive, the Russian, the Boyfriend, the Insane, the Father Bald. The Russian was so funny when he was going to fix the components, he said â€Å"Russia and America has a same components but its made from China†, After that he pupok only then its already fix, and they got home or back to earth. The movie was about A massive  meteor shower  destroys the  Space Shuttle Atlantis  and bombards New York City, the East Coast, and Finland.  NASA discovers that a Texas-sized  asteroid  will collide with Earth in 18 days, creating another extinction event.  So, they create a team that going explode the asteroid. The mission was successful. My Reaction to Space Station The movie was a documentary type, its more fun in the outer space. When I was a child, I love stars and other heavenly bodies etc. I have so many idea with regarding to Space. Tom Cruise is the narrator and main cast in the movie. They show all of equipment and other needs in going to space. They go to the   futuristic laboratory where future technologies are perfected and existing problems solved by a combination of dedication, bravery, and innovation.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Economic Values as Seen in Charlie And The Chocolate Factory essays

Economic Values as Seen in Charlie And The Chocolate Factory essays In the movie Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, Willy Wonka, the owner of the world known chocolate factory, decides to give out five golden tickets packed in the chocolate bars he produces. Winners of the golden tickets can go into the factory for a one day tour. Charlie Bucket, coming from a poor family, surprisingly finds the last golden ticket and goes into the factory for an amazing life changing tour. I found a few economic ideas throughout this movie, such as supply and demand, substitution effect, opportunity cost, and scarcity. I will explain how these principles were used in the movie. In When Shelf-Based Scarcity Impacts Consumer Preferences, Parker (2011) analyzed how scarcity affected peoples choices. I used this information to describe how scarcity was presented in Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. In Consumer demand for chocolate stays sweet, Mintel research group analyzed the market demand and gave out the sales report of the UK chocolate industry. I used this information to support my analysis of the use of supply and demand in the movie. In Rolling up the rim to success, Moskowitz (2011) described the promotion method used to maximize company's profit. I used this as an example to support my ideas on consumers buying incentives. Scarcity was presented in the first part of the movie. The factory owner, Willy Wonka, gave out only five tickets in the millions of chocolate bars. According to Sowell (2003), a famous American economist, The first lesson of economics is scarcity: There is never enough of anything to satisfy all those who want it (p.138) . In When Shelf-Based Scarcity Impacts Consumer Preferences, Parker (2011) said that scarcity affected products attractiveness: Scarcity increases consumers preference for desirable, but not undesirable goods. Potential causes of scarcity effects include reactance and, naive eco...

Monday, October 21, 2019

True Beauty - American Beauty And Mythological Undertones essays

True Beauty - American Beauty And Mythological Undertones essays True Beauty American Beauty and Mythological Undertones American Beauty, the winner of five Academy Awards, examines the captivating representation of the American Dream gone askew in the complex 1990s society. American Beauty was released after the dot-com rise and fall that crushed the American dreams of many, yet also gives the viewers a fresh and contemporary vision that is reminiscent of mythology. American Beauty portrays the American nightmare instead of the All-American dream and good life that society is trying to attain. The movie shows how society has achieved many goals but has never been noticed or compensated for our efforts. Beauty looks at how each of the characters is depicted in a complex fashion and how their relationships are multifaceted and often strained as a result of a variety of characteristics and personal attributes. The film exhibits many more complex issues that are left unresolved by the conclusion, including marriage, maternalism, reawakening, and morality. (1). American Beauty is a highly invent ive black comedy. It was a mystery story with a genuine final twist. It was a kalidiscopic journey through American suburbia...It was a series of love stories. It was about imprisonment in the cages we all make for ourselves and our hope-for escape. It was about loneliness. It was about beauty. One thing I was certain of, the script, like its characters, wasnt at all what it first appeared. (2). The main motif of American Beauty is the introduction of the American Dream a pursuit of happiness through material objects. It examines the various characters and how they represent and symbolize the false dream, as exposed through the life and transformation of the main character, Lester Burnham. (3). Lester Burnham (Kevin Spacey) is imprisoned by his job and especially by his life. Lester even claims that ...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Dickinsons If I Can Stop One Heart From Breaking

Dickinson's 'If I Can Stop One Heart From Breaking' Emily Dickinson is a towering figure in American literature. This 19th-century poet, though a prolific writer, remained secluded from the world for most of her life. Emily Dickinsons poetry has a rare quality of truthful observation. Her words echo the images around her. She did not stick to any particular genre, as she wrote whatever intrigued her the most. The diminutive, introverted poet wrote more than 1800 poems during her lifetime. However, fewer than a dozen got published while she was still alive. Most of her work was discovered by her sister Lavinia after Emilys death. The bulk of her poems were published by Thomas Higginson and Mabel Todd in  1890.   The Poem Most of Emily Dickinsons poems are short, with no titles. Her poems leave you yearning for more, wanting to delve deep into the mind of the poet. If I can stop one heart from breaking,I shall not live in vain;If I can ease one life the aching,Or cool one pain,Or help one fainting robinUnto his nest again,I shall not live in vain. If I Can Stop One Heart From Breaking Analysis To understand the poem, one needs to understand the poet and her life. Emily Dickinson was a recluse who had barely any interaction with people outside of her home. Most of her adult life was spent shut away from the world, where she attended to her ill mother and the affairs of her home. Emily Dickinson expressed her sentiments through poems. Selfless Love Is the Theme This poem can be categorized as a love poem, though the love expressed is hardly romantic. It talks about a love so deep that it places others before self. Selfless love is the true form of love. In this poem, the poet talks about how she would happily spend her life helping those who suffer from heartbreak, deep sadness, and despair. By wishing to help a fainting robin back into the nest, she reveals her vulnerable and sensitive side. Her deep sensitivity for the welfare of others, even before personal self, is the message conveyed in the poem. It is a message of kindness, compassion that one human should afford another human without the need for display or drama. A life that is devoted to anothers welfare is a life well-lived. Saints Who Followed the Path of Selfless Love A striking example of the kind of person Emily Dickinson talks about in this poem is Mother Teresa. She was a saint for thousands of homeless, sick, and orphaned people. She worked hard to bring happiness into the lives of the terminally ill, the miserable, and the destitute who had no place in society. Mother Teresa dedicated her entire life to feed the hungry, tend to the sick, and wipe a tear from the faces of those in despair. Another person who lived for the welfare of others is Helen Keller. Having lost her ability to hear and talk at a very early age, Helen Keller had to struggle hard to educate herself. She went on to inspire, teach, and guide hundreds of people who were physically challenged. Her noble work helped to change the lives of millions of people around the world. Angels in Your Life If you look around, you will find that you, too, are surrounded by angels who have taken care of you in the past. These angels could be your friends, parents, teachers, or loved ones. They support you when you need a shoulder to cry on, help you bounce back when you give up, and ease your pain when you are going through a bad phase. These good Samaritans are the reason you are doing fine today. Find the opportunity to thank these blessed souls. And if you want to give back to the world, read this poem by Emily Dickinson again and reflect on her words. Find an opportunity to help another person. Help another person to redeem his or her life, and that is how you can redeem yours.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

What qualities, skills, and abilities must physical therapist Essay

What qualities, skills, and abilities must physical therapist assistants possess in order to be effective interdisciplinary team members - Essay Example What qualities, skills, and abilities must physical therapist assistants possess in order to be effective interdisciplinary team members? All Allied Health Schools (2002-2008) states that PTAs must earn an associate degree in physical therapist assisting so that they may practice in their field. They suggest that before starting a PTA program the individual should obtain some experience as a volunteer with a physical therapist or at a nursing home. Having a strong background in biology, chemistry, physics, health, arts, and social sciences is an advantage in their favor. The physical therapist assistant (PTA), works under the direction and supervision of a physical therapist (PT) (Dreeben, 2007). The PT and the PTA collaborate with each other. This collaboration is important for the patient ´s successful rehabilitation and for everyone ´s involved satisfaction. The interdisciplinary team members work together from different disciplines to set goals pertinent to the patient ´s case. Although the team members collaborate in the decision making the evaluations and interventions are done independently. This information may be extrapolated for the physical therapist assistants since this could be a stepping stone for them to take into consideration should they want to rank high in their positions, wish to excel obtaining a higher education degree, and become better prepared in their areas of expertise given the constant changes that are taking place in the field (new technologies, better patient healthcare, better physical therapist assistants).

Implement and monitor nursing care for clients with acute health Case Study

Implement and monitor nursing care for clients with acute health problems - Case Study Example Harold’s injuries would limit his mobility and would confine him for a while to a bed or to a chair (University of Virginia â€Å"Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation). He would likely need assistance for all his activities – from his waking to his sleeping hours. I would involve Harold’s family in meeting his self-care needs by placing them on shifts. I can ask his wife to sleep in a separate bed, but still be in the same room as her husband in order to assist Harold in his ADLs. However, since Harold’s wife has initial manifestations of Alzheimer’s disease, she cannot be left with Harold for prolonged periods of time. Members of the family can take shifts in helping care for Harold. His children and grandchildren can be asked to assist Harold in performing his ADLs. They can help groom him, assist him to and from the bathroom, and keep him company. This can help ensure that Harold would not be bored and his morale always kept up. This would also ensure that his burns would not get infected or be subjected to further injury. The grandchildren have to be taught the proper ways of assisting and caring for their grandfather by demonstrating to them the proper ways of grooming and assisting in order not to subject Harold to further injuries. 3. Assess metabolism. Burn victims are in a hypermetabolic state. (Hom,, p. 184), which increases their risk for prolonged inflammation, cardiac dysfunction, infection, sepsis, and death (Bankhead â€Å"News by Specialty) 1. Explaining to Harold the debridement process – how the procedure would be undertaken, the risks of the procedure, and the ultimate goal of the surgery. This would help reduce the patient’s anxiety and stress about the procedure (Steele,, p. 55). 3. Instructing Harold on what he can expect during the surgery itself. I would explain to Harold why intravenous access will be needed before the surgery; the surgical skin preparations

Friday, October 18, 2019

Philosophy ( professional and business ethics) Essay

Philosophy ( professional and business ethics) - Essay Example Most likely, Bob is not only self centered but also materialistic in nature causing him to care very little about the benefits or positive aspects of â€Å"being good† or acting morally. One aspect of acting morally is how one is perceived by others. If Bob begins to act in a manner that appears moral and considerate of those around him, he is more likely to be trusted and liked. If Bob is trusted and liked, he will easily be able to convince others to do business with him or even help him out in a time of need, in the spirit of neighborly kinship. As an amoral person, Bob must feel the consequences of his actions in that others around him are repelled by him and avoid a great deal of contact with him. If Bob can be convinced that changing his attitude and actions will yield favorable results for him personally, he will most likely be conducive to such changes. The concept of â€Å"ought† or â€Å"should† may in fact be erroneous to Bob as the idea of what one should or should not do are subjective and void of scientific reason. Additionally, Bob is coming from a place of primal desire or concern as opposed to an ideology that doing the right thing is something that one should do in order to be a good person versus the motivation to do the right thing in order to perpetuate one’s own best interests. In theory, the latter of the two motivations, seems to in essence make the notion of Bob’s doing the right thing amoral because of the motivation behind those actions. This however, may be the only form of morality that Bob is willing to embrace and since it benefits those around him for him to act morally as opposed to amorally, it can be argued that regardless of Bob’s motivation for his moral actions, the actions themselves are moral due to their results all the way across the board. Additionally, if Bob can be convinced that his conversion to moral actions versus continuing in amoral actions will preserve his

Environmental Geochemistry and Health Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Environmental Geochemistry and Health - Essay Example Unleaded gasoline has at least 15 hazardous substances including toluene (35%) and is classified as highly volatile and will result in vapour lock where combustion does not take place1. When mixed in water, most of the gasoline could evaporate if the water is open, but much of it cannot evaporate in underground water making a big proportion to dissolve and this will be absorbed by sediments. For aquatic organisms, this product will be quite toxic, depending on their size and resistance capability. Corrective action is necessary starting with site investigation. Hydrocarbon contamination with the groundwater should be stopped immediately. Its discharging point should be plugged and the nearest drains, water bodies should be sealed off, so that further contamination to distant water bodies does not happen. Residents could be evacuated if gasoline has already spread into drinking, using and sewage water or if that is not the case, water supply should be disconnected immediately and alternative water source should be provided. Complete groundwater monitoring should start immediately. Instead of one single action, it is better to perform by-monthly actions to remove all traces of gasoline from ground water, to ensure that dissolved contaminants are effectively vanishing. And groundwater sampling should be done on a regular basis through tracer testing. If widespread presence is detected, human exposure to it should be suspended immediately. Dissolved contamination level should be identified and ecological profile should be drawn, followed by remedial programme identified with the Corrective Action Plan. Public participation may be necessary in the entire operation to some extent. This method is called Dynamic Underwater Stripping, in which steam drives contaminated water towards extraction wells. Where steam cannot penetrate, electrical heating dries and distils the clays, volcanic rocks and limestone. Heating of the soil also could do the same. It is very difficult to clean the underground contamination and this process is accepted as cost worthy, less cumbersome and minimum time consuming. Cleaning has to be done both above and below the water table. Clay has very low permeability, and the usual pump-and-treat method would be time consuming and more expensive and might not work below water level. Dynamic stripping could work even below water table, and by vacuum extraction, it could remove the gasoline and contaminated water2. This method relies on Steam Injection, Electrical heating, and underground imaging and all have proved very effective and reasonably cheaper. It has many additional advantages like being effective in low permeable soils, being capable of removing contaminant below and above water table. It is not risky to population, because the action is quick and decisive. Question 2: Gasoline (one of the Volatile Organic Compounds) contamination in ground water can cause major health hazards to people and ruin the river and water bodies' ecosystems completely. It can contaminate soil with hazardous results. MTBE in it creates alarming tension whenever leaks happen. Health of all 5,000 populations could be at risk by this environmental hazard, while the

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Headquarters Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Headquarters - Essay Example l built and superior cars that have, in return, drawn the attention of numerous customers in the world market and, has also retained the loyalty of the existing buyers. The high quality vehicles have, therefore, led to the annual increase in sale and hence profit growth. BMW models exist in different sizes. Since it deals with the manufacture of cars, this company is likely to procure materials such as metals, rubber, hammers, glasses, leather, mirrors, paints, fuel, overalls, stationery, wet cells and the necessary tools for the assemblage of the cars. Some of the misconceptions that may come into play in this German company is all the private sector companies have similar terms and conditions when contracting a dealer. This misconception may create a dispute between BMW and the supplier of it raw materials, leading to the termination of a contract. The misconception on terms and conditions may create a disagreement with the international customers. However, the reality is that ther e has never been universal or global set of terms and conditions that govern all private companies during

Selection of a Cloud Computing Provider Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Selection of a Cloud Computing Provider - Essay Example Another important attribute that has its own prime importance is the financially stability of the cloud providers as the providers with higher level of financial risk can lead the companies to become more vulnerable to their operations. In case, if a cloud provider defaults, it can cause serious damages to the companies including loss of data, delays in gathering backups etc. Before making a contract with the cloud providers, it is equally important for the companies making agreement with the cloud providers to ensure that system tools and infrastructure statistics would be visible to company. Those statistics include processors’ utilization, the storage provided and consumed by the system, performance of the network, the number of people who are signed in to the system etc. At the same time, companies can also ask the cloud providers to show the â€Å"churn rate† which presents the number of clients lost by the cloud provider in the last year.The legal requirements are also quite considerable because some of the countries do not allow choosing a cloud provider from other countries. For instance, the countries under European Union only approve certain countries from where a cloud provider can be selected like Canada.The security and quality based issues should also be taken into account such that ISO certified cloud providers are more authentic and reliable as compared to other cloud providers.As a result the implementation is carried out in such a manner that at the earlier stage those applications are implemented first.

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Headquarters Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Headquarters - Essay Example l built and superior cars that have, in return, drawn the attention of numerous customers in the world market and, has also retained the loyalty of the existing buyers. The high quality vehicles have, therefore, led to the annual increase in sale and hence profit growth. BMW models exist in different sizes. Since it deals with the manufacture of cars, this company is likely to procure materials such as metals, rubber, hammers, glasses, leather, mirrors, paints, fuel, overalls, stationery, wet cells and the necessary tools for the assemblage of the cars. Some of the misconceptions that may come into play in this German company is all the private sector companies have similar terms and conditions when contracting a dealer. This misconception may create a dispute between BMW and the supplier of it raw materials, leading to the termination of a contract. The misconception on terms and conditions may create a disagreement with the international customers. However, the reality is that ther e has never been universal or global set of terms and conditions that govern all private companies during

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

M5A2-Corporate Social Responsability Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

M5A2-Corporate Social Responsability - Essay Example I conquer with Hawkins (2006) that the business must appreciate diversity, engage in social initiatives such as philanthropic contributions towards development of the communities and reduce the negative impacts of its operations on the ecological environment. Schwartz (2011) acknowledges that technology plays a critical role in managing business risks, enhancing the reputation of the organization, building employee trust and improving the allocation of resources in the organization. At the same time, communication technologies will enable the organization to establish cordial relations with stakeholders and exploit market opportunities that aim at enhancing the welfare of all stakeholders (Hopkins, 2012). The course has enabled me understand that technology facilitates product innovation thus leading to high quality products that meets the changing needs of consumers and need to conserve the ecological environment through minimization of pollution and wastage of natural resources (Crowther & Aras, 2008). Technology facilitates good governance and safeguard of stakeholder interests especially the suppliers, lenders of capital and the government (Crowther & Aras, 2008). In this case, modern technologies have streamlined the supply chain processes and enabled the companies to easily store and retrieve information that is essential in decision-making. Computer information systems will store information on customer preferences, obligations to suppliers and employee information thus facilitating the fulfillment of the social obligations of the business (Crowther & Aras, 2008). Indeed, I have understood that companies that ignore the social and environmental concerns in their technology will suffer from negative brand image and high employee turnover (Schwartz, 2011). For instance, I agree that technology presents several challenges such as the need to safeguard the health and safety of employees in the production departments and

Monday, October 14, 2019

Cultural Ethnography, Scheins Model Essay Example for Free

Cultural Ethnography, Scheins Model Essay Introduction: Cingular Wireless is the largest wireless company in the United States. The company boasts the largest voice and data network and over 58 million customers. In 2004, Cingular generated over $32 billion in revenue. Cingular is owned by ATT Inc. and Bell South. Cingular‟s vision is, â€Å"To be the most highly regarded wireless company in the world, with a driving focus around best-in-class sales and service† (Cingular, 2006, p.1). The corporation values customers, integrity, performance, teamwork, and its employees The goal of this study was to reveal the organizational culture of Cingular Wireless at a retail sales location. To help determine the culture, this study focused on what is the nature of work for Cingular Wireless sales consultants, and how do employees identify themselves within the corporation according to Edgar Schein‟s models of organizational culture. To guide this study, several aspects of employment at Cingular were studied including employee daily routines, flexibility, expectations, and the relationships between managers, sales representatives, and customers. To analyze Cingular, this study will be utilizing Edgar Schein‟s model of organizational cultures. â€Å"Edgar Schein is a management scholar and consultant interested in the role of leaders in the development and maintenance of organizational culture† (Miller, 2006, p. 105). Schein (1992) believes that culture can be studied in levels, which are the degrees to which the culture is visible to observers. His three levels include artifacts, espoused values, and basic underlying assumptions. According to Miller, artifacts are the most obvious in Schein‟s model which consist of the architecture, furniture, technology, dress, written documents, art, forms of address, communication during meets and decision-making styles. (Miller, 2006, p. 107108). â€Å"The problem with artifacts is that they are palpable but hard to decipher accurately. We know how we react to them, but that is not a reliable indicator of how members of the organization react† (Schein, 1990, p. 111-112). The second level of culture Schein recognizes is that of espoused values. Schein‟s espoused values are, â€Å"the articulated, publicly announced principles and values that the group claims to be trying to achieve† (Schein, 1992, p. 9). Schein (1990) believes that the values, ideologies, and norms can be found using interviews, questionnaires, and surveys. Schein believes that, â€Å"Open-ended interviews can be very useful in getting at this level of how people feel and think† (Schein, 1990, p. 112). The third and most difficult level of culture for observers to witness is that of basic assumptions. Miller (2006) believes that members of the group can rarely articulate these basic values since they are a natural part of their daily lives, making the basic assumptions even more difficult for observers to see. From Schein‟s models and definitions it is apparent that the Schein views, â€Å"culture as a complex pattern of assumptions, values, behaviors, and artifacts† (Miller, 2006, p. 111). Schein (1990) believes that through intense observation and the involvement of motivated employees usually unconscious assumptions and perceptions can be discovered about the organizations culture. Schein states, â€Å"Working with motivated insiders is essential because only they can bring to the surface their own underlying assumptions and articulate how they basically perceive the world around them† (Schein, 1990, p. 112). In addition to these three basic levels this study will also utilize the ten major categories Schein uses to help define an organization‟s culture. These will include (Schein, 1992).: 1. Observed behavioral regularities when people interact 2. Group Norms 3. Espoused values 4. Formal philosophy 5. Rules of the Game 6. Climate 7. Embedded skills 8. Habits of thinking, mental models, and/or linguistic paradigms 9. Shared meanings 10. â€Å"Root metaphors† or integrating symbols Although Schein‟s models are widely applied and studied, areas of disagreement with his methods include how much time is actually required to reveal the levels of an organization‟s culture. How many participants are needed to properly assess the culture, and if bias affects the review of an organization also can all hinder the accuracy of a study based off of Schein‟s model. To conduct this study eight of Schein‟s ten major categories were incorporated. The first, observed behavioral regularities are the languages, rituals, traditions and routines of employees. The second category is espoused values which are publicly known goals of the group. The third category is the formal philosophy which is company policies and interactions with customers. The fourth category will be the rules of the game which are the things new employees must learn to fit in. Embedded skills and shared meanings will be the fifth and sixth categories incorporated into this study. These are the necessary skills to do the job and how the employees have similar meanings for certain things. Finally, the basic assumptions will be the eighth category incorporated into the study of the organizational culture of Cingular Wireless. (Schein, 1992) Methodology: To discover how Cingular fits into Schein‟s categories of organizational culture a method f participant observation will be used including observing daily routines, employee interactions amongst themselves and customers, and participating as a member of the Cingular staff at a retail store location. This ethnographic approach is influenced by an article Esteban, Hirt and McGuire. The article incorporated Schein‟s model in a study on â€Å"The Work Life of Student Service Professionals at Rural Community Colleges. The article was helpful in the organization of this study as well as an example of different methods of conducting the study itself. (Esteban, 2003). Applying Schein‟s Model To Cingular Wireless-7 For this study, information from Cingular Wireless was collected including orientation information, employee handbooks, daily forms and corporate publications. In addition, the company owned retail store at Marley Station Mall in Glen Burnie, Maryland was extensively observed and studied. The store has a manager, three full-time employees, and one part-time employee that were interviewed as well. These methods are being used because they will provide a window for gaining insight into the culture of Cingular Wireless. These methods will reveal the way the organizational culture is shaped by the management, employees, and corporate headquarters. The methods are better than others in this situation because it will allow the study to examine a variety of aspects rather than only one or two. Participants: Jason Celani, 34, has been the manager of the Marley Station store since its opening in the fall of 2005. Celani was a former ATT employee and has been in the wireless industry for about 8 years. His job consists of scheduling staff, ordering products, conducting inventory checks, reporting to a regional manager, conducting weekly meetings, and attending training sessions. Jason loves technology and enjoys reading about new products in his spare time. (J. Celani, Personal Communication, 11/06/2006). Tracy Corcoran, 39, is a full-time employee that has been in the wireless industry for 6 years. Previously Corcoran was also an ATT employee. He is the senior sales representative at the Marley Station store and is not very interested in new technology. Tracy is hoping to get out of the wireless industry within the next few years. (T. Corcoran, Personal Communcation, 10/28/2006). Is a part-time college student that has been working at the Marley Station store since March 2006. She enjoys having the newest phone on the market and loves being able to get her email wherever she goes. She has no previous experience in the wireless industry. (L. Andes-Miller, Personal Communication, 10/27/2006). Chuck Payne is the newest full-time employee at the store. Payne is 20 years old and a former radio broadcaster for a gospel station in the Washington D.C. area. Payne has never worked in the wireless industry but also enjoys getting new phones when they come out. Payne began his employment in late July of 2006. (C. Payne, Personal Communication, 11/01/2006). Alejandro Quant is the only part-time employee observed and interviewed at the Marley Station store. Quant, 21, is a full-time student at the University of Maryland. Quant is valuable to the location because of previous job experience with T Mobile, another wireless provider and also because he is bilingual. He speaks both Spanish and English. (A. Quant, Personal Communication, 11/05/2006). The participants were all observed and interviewed and the way in which they interacted was noted. They were asked about likes and dislikes, daily operations, and if they saw a future within the company. This study was conducted at the Cingular Wireless at Marley Station by a parttime employee that has been with the company since June 2006. As an embedded observer internal access to the organizational culture of the Cingular store was gained. The research for this ethnography also benefited because as an employee the basic workings of the company was easily accessible, the other employees are not uncomfortable interacting with me, and access to internal documents and meetings was possible. The goals of this ethnography are to gain a better understanding of the basic assumptions of the organization. The representatives studied work long hours and they have a good grasp on the organizational culture of Cingular. To bracket avoid bias in this study observations and interviews were conducted off the clock. Time was spent observing the employees out on the sales floor and also via the security cameras located in the office. Also to avoid bias, interviews were conducted outside of the work environment at local restaurants. They were not conducted during or after scheduled shifts. Materials: A variety of materials and sources will be used to support this study. This will include orientation and training documents, internal employee handbooks, external documents, interviews with employees, and on site observations. Analysis of Data: To analyze the data collected in the study of Cingular Wireless at Marley Station Mall this portion will be organized according to eight of Schein‟s categories utilized for this study. They will be supported using internal and external documents, observations, and employee interviews. Artifacts: The Marley Station Cingular store had a plethora of easily observable artifacts. The most apparent was the colors and logo of Cingular all over the store. There was no furniture and a very linear floor pan. In general all of the staff members said that they disliked the floor plan because standing all day got tiring and it was hard to maneuver around the store when it got crowded because it was small and the counter‟s linear design made it impossible to get around each other. The colors of orange and blue were on most signs and popular slogans such as â€Å"raising the bar,† â€Å"roll over minutes,† and â€Å"All over network† were visible all over the store. The floor plan pushed what Cingular refers to as its advantages over other wireless carriers. Cingular shirts and name tags were the next most obvious artifact. All of the employees wear Cingular branded shirts and a name tag on the right hand side. Cingular has a contract with Lands End clothing company to customize what the company refers to as its â€Å"Team Colors.† (See Appendix A) Each employee is allowed $125 for their spring wardrobe and $175 for their fall and winter uniforms. Specific vocabulary and language is very obvious at the store. Celani often sends text-messages to all of his employees at the end of the business day and he refers to them collectively as â€Å"team.† When a representative has customers come in, they are referred to as an â€Å"opportunity,† and extras that can be added onto a calling plan are referred to as a â€Å"bolt-on† (J. Celani, Personal Communication, 11/01/2006). Cingular boasts that it has the largest product variety in the wireless industry. The store itself has a large amount of products on the wall which are referred to as „live.‟ This means that the phones are in working condition and the customers can try them out in the stores. â€Å"At de alers the phones on the walls are dummies, customers can‟t try them out† said Andes-Miller (L. Andes-Miller, Personal Communication, 10/27/2006). There is a large amount of documentation conducted at Cingular Wireless stores. Every morning a form titled â€Å"Non-Negotiable Standards† is filled out by employees. (See Appendix B) This is a check list of standards such as cleanliness, work attire, and merchandise that is to be completed before the store opens. â€Å"The non-negotiables are like getting a cup of coffee in the morning, we all are used to doing them,† said Corcoran (T.Corcoran, Personal Communication, (10/28/2006). Every time a representative makes a sale or adds on to a customers account they are also required to mark it on the â€Å"Daily Sales Record† sheet. (See Appendix C) Observed Behavioral Regularities: Cingular has what they refer to as a six step sales process. (See Appendix D) Each employee is introduced to this on their first day of new-hire training, which is a program that introduces new employees to the Cingular way of selling. According to this process each customer is to be greeted within 10 feet/10 seconds of entering the store. The representatives at the Marley Station store do this without thinking. Also included in this process is building value for the customer, offering solutions, asking for the sale, educating the customer, and thanking the customer. In addition to a set sales process each representative knows to sell what is referred to as â€Å"The Cingular Advantage.† (See Appendix D) All of the representatives are required to have skills on a computer system called Opus. This is the computer system which allows the representatives access, create, and change accounts. â€Å"Opus is much easier to use than past systems,† said veteran employee Corcoran, â€Å"It freezes but we all know how to deal with it. Each of us uses the same system and procedures every day to work on and verify accounts† (T. Corcoran, Personal Communication, 10/28/2006). Every employee realizes that they must attend a meeting every Friday morning before the store opens. At this meeting the floor plan is discussed, scheduling is worked out, and any other issues are brought up. The communication between the employees and the managers is very informal. Everyone has a chance to speak and the staff knows that once all business is completed they will go out to breakfast. It is very obvious that Cingular‟s first level of organizational culture, the artifacts, is prevalent through out the store. Employees have a common vocabulary specific to their work, they have uniforms, a system for selling and a store that advertises what the company is all about, being the best wireless provider. Espoused Values: The team at the Marley Station Cingular store is constantly striving to achieve goals which are advertised by the wireless company. While working with customers the sales representatives know that they need to promote the Cingular Advantages. The Cingular Advantages include the best technology, great value, best products and services, newest handsets, and the most convenient services. (See Appendix D) â€Å"Orientation and training pounds these ideas into our heads from the first day we have our jobs,† said Quant. â€Å"Cingular has high standards that we all must uphold† (A. Quant, Personal Communication, 11/05/2006). To ensure that the representatives uphold the values of the company Cingular sends out mystery shoppers to each store at least once a month to make sure that the representatives are selling in accordance to Cingular policy. The mystery shoppers have a checklist and grade the representatives. (See Appendix E) The company also makes what it values available to the general public. On its website Cingular lists its goals and core values, as well as their definitions and what the values mean to the company. (See Appendix F) Basic Assumptions: The basic assumptions and values of Cingular wireless are hard to observe as both an outsider and as an employee initially. After extensive observation, job experience, and interviews there are some basic assumptions that surface. The first is that the organization values employees that are „hungry.‟ If it is a slow day at the store employees print out flyers and distribute them to local business or make calls to customers asking how their service is going in hopes of adding onto their plans. These behaviors are highly praised by the manager of the store for being innovative and going above and beyond the job description. An example of this is employees distributing flyers outside of their scheduled hours for events such as â€Å"Friends and Family Day,† which gives customers extra discounts for coming in on designated dates. (See Appendix G) Unlike many full-time workers that have benefits the employees of the Marley Station store expect to work nights and weekends. If an employee begins to gripe about working these hours the other employees tend to remind them that that is just the way things are. Finally, all employees seem to understand that they are expendable by the company and do not question quotas, paperwork, or seemingly superfluous procedures that waste time and do not make sense. New employees tend to learn quickly the way are and solutions that have been turned into operational policies. All staff members know to let a customer know that not all phone numbers may be successfully transferred when they upgrade their phone but they will do their best. Very rarely are numbers unable to be transferred but employees know the steps necessary to cover themselves in case rare things actually happen. â€Å"I didn‟t understand half the stuff when I started working here, I thought that Friday morning meetings were stupid, and I did not want to be here at 9am on Saturdays. Now I just how things are, I didn‟t realize that those things were a part of Cingular‟s culture. I didn‟t even know Cingular had a culture, but I guess that makes sense,† said Payne (C. Payne, Personal Communication, 11/01/2006). Conclusion: This study tried to examine the organizational culture of Cingular Wireless in relation to Schein‟s model and his levels of artifacts, espoused values, and basic assumptions. The study would have been improved if there was an employee in the process of leaving the company that an exit interview could have been conducted on. This would have benefited the study because it would probably have uncovered some downfalls of the culture of Cingular. The next step and question in this study would have been to compare the employee experiences at the Marley Station Mall store to employees at a stand-alone store or at a kiosk to see if their experiences were any different. Finally, the implication of this study on later discussions of the corporation is that this study provides a solid base for a person trying to research this wireless provider in the Washington D.C./Baltimore market. References Cingular Wireless. (2006). About us- Cingular at a glance. Atlanta, GA: Retrieved on †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.November 8, 2006 from Cingular Wireless. (Spring 2006). 2006 COR team colors program guide. Atlanta, GA. Cingular Wireless. (2005). Expectations: Selling the Cingular advantage. (Cingular †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦publication, CGL-PT-PG-050605). Atlanta, GA. Esteban, R., Hirt, J., McGuire, L.(2003). Editor’s choice: The worklife of student service †¦ professionals at rural community colleges [Electronic version]. Community College †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.Review. Retrieved November 8, 2006 from †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Johnson, D. (2000) The Corporate Culture Survival Guide. (Review). In Journal of †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Leadership Studies, 7, p111. Retrieved November 8, 2006, from Academic Onefile †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦via Thompson Gale: †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦=galeusergroupname=aacc. Miller, K. (2006). Organizational communication: Approaches and processes (4th ed.) †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.Belmont, Ca: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning. Schein, E. (1993). On Dialogue, culture, and organizational learn ing. (Special issue on †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦the Learning Organization). In Organizational Dynamics, 22, p40 (12). Retrieved †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.November 8, 2006, from via Thomson Gale: †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Applying Schein‟s Model To Cingular Wireless-16 .Documentstype=retrievetablD=T002prodld=AONEdcld+a14606098source. =galeusergroupname=aacc Schein, E. (1990). Organizational Culture. American Psychologist, Vol. 45 (No.2), p. ,,,,,,,,,,111-113). Schein, E. (1992). Organizational culture and leadership (2nd ed.) San Francisco, Ca: †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.Josey-Bass Publishers.