Friday, May 31, 2019
Its Time to End the Drug War Uhh, uhhhB.I.G., P-O, P-P-ANo info, for the, DEAFederal termnts mad cause Im flagrantTap my cell, and the shout out in the basement-Notorious B.I.G. lyrics from Mo Money, Mo ProblemsIn Christopher Wallaces (a.k.a. Notorious BIG) Mo Money, Mo Problems, the late rapper from Brooklyn mentions his run in with the police to begin with in his life. Christopher Wallace came to be known as arguably the greatest rapper the world has ever heard, but before the days as a storied entertainer Christopher Wallace an average crack dealer in New York. Many youths in the New York area wish to follow his path, and sell drugs in their respective neighborhoods in order to be able to roll in style. Some individuals would try to say that the current system for dealing with drugs works in this country, look what it did for Christopher Wallace how he straightened up his life after jail. That could be the furthest from the truth, if one were to look at the rest of Christo pher Wallaces songs, one could deduct the violence, and anger that has built up in him. Christopher Wallaces life would come to an abrupt and violent end, when he would be shot down in a drive-by in Los Angeles at the age of 24. The tragic end of such a talented and troublesome life, brings me to ask the question whether the USs war on drugs is actually accomplishing anything, when drugs are in time easily available in metropolitan cities across the country, especially New York.The modern Drug Wars roots can be go out back to US anti-imperialist sentiments against the British since the 19th century. More recent incarnations of these sentiments are figures such as Richard Nixon, Harry Anslinger, and George Bush. Drugs such as ... ...t.all Estimating heroin Availability. Cambridge, aggregative Abt Associates Inc. 19999.http//www.csdp.org/edcs/theneed.htm10.http//www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/policy/ndcs00/chap2_4.html 11. http//www.progressive.org/com1099.htm12.W isotsky, Steven Breaking the Impasse in the War on Drugs. New YorkGreenwood Press 198613. Martin, Susan Taylor Heroin for addicts works as a Swiss fix. St. Petersburg St. Petersburg, FLA. 200114.Reinarman, Craig and Cohen, Peter. Is US dutch policy the devil?. Univeristy of Amsterdam Amsterdam 1999.15.Donrey, Samantha Young. USDEA Profile Being Raised by New Head. Wahington Donrey Media Group 200116.Hunt, Gibson Hunt and Chambers Carl D. The Heroin Epidemics. New York, Spectrum Publications 197617.http//www.dea.gov/concern/heroin.htm18.http//www.drugwarfacts.org/thenethe.htm
Thursday, May 30, 2019
Racial profiling had existed since biblical times, and is still present in todays society. Recently in history we had the tragic terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001. It did not take long for the fear of anyone from the Middle East to ripple through America. Wearing a pillbox in public would get people falsely accused of beingness a violent terrorist. Over and over again people foolishly stomp and judge individuals based on their race or appearance. One of the most recent victims of profiling is the pit bull. Simply looking like or being a pit bull gets many loving creatures falsely accused of being violent, uncontrollable monsters. set bulls atomic number 18 the major target of legislation that bans or restricts certain types of dogs based solely on appearance and stereotypes.Breed Specific Legislation (BSL) is a ban or restriction on certain types of dogs because they atomic number 18 perceived as dangerous breeds or types of dogs. Pit bull type dogs atomic number 18 the ma jor target of such legislation but there are many other breeds targeted as well. The name pit bull is used loosely to categorize many bully breeds of dogs. Several breeds that are often referred to as pit bulls are the Staffordshire poop Terrier, American Staffordshire Terrier, American atomic number 29dog, Bull Terrier and most commonly, the American Pit Bull Terrier. When statistics on pit bulls are taken, people are actually comparing a group of dogs rather than individual breeds. Several communities have enacted BSL, and many have repealed this legislation because it simply does not work. Topeka, Ks recently reviewed the authorisation of their breed bans and made the decision to repeal their bans in 2010 (BSL). In the last ten years, over 220 communities have repealed their breed specific la... ...ation and the Pit Bull Terrier argon the Laws Justified? DefendingDog.com. N.p., 2006. Web. 25 Apr. 2012.BSL Locations in Kansas. Understand-A-Bull.com. Pit Bull Rescue Central, 20 11. Web. 2 May 2012. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Report on Fatal Dog Attacks. Understand-A-Bull.com. Pit Bull Rescue Central, Spring 2005. Web. 28 Apr. 2012.McNeil, Anna. A New Pit Bull Study. StubbyDog.org. University of Colombias Animal Welfare Program, 15 Mar. 2012. Web. 29 Apr. 2012.Olsen, Kimberly R, and Julie K Levy. Pit Bull Identification in Shelters. MaddiesFund.org. University of Florida, 22 July 2011. Web. 25 Apr. 2012.Prince Georges County The Most Thorough Assessment of BSL To Date . StopBSL.org. N.p., 2011. Web. 1 May 2012.Wins Against Breed Specific Legislation. Understand-A-Bull.com. Pit Bull Rescue Central, 2011. Web. 3 May 2012.
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
The Signifi washbowlce of Dreams and Dreaming in A Midsummer Nights Dream by William Shakespeargon In Pucks final speech of the stand for he says And this weak and idle discipline No more yielding than a ambitiousness It has been argued that Shakespeare structured the play around the notion of a dream. seek the significance of dreams and dreaming in the play, both as a theme and dramatic device. There are several definitions of a dream, although no one can really define a dream, it is what we make it. The first theory is that it is a mixture of images, accumulated from your thoughts or experiences, that happen whilst you are asleep. It could also be a fantasy you experience whilst your semi-conscious which you go for no control over. It could also be simply wish fulfillment. All these definitions relate to the play as the fairy characters are fantasy, controlling the humans experiences and granting them their wish fulfillments. I think Shakespear e thought of the notion of a dream and from all these different ideas, dreamed up a point combining all of them, perhaps it was his wish fulfillment or came from a dream he once had. Pucks weak and idle theme is anything but, some cultures such as the Chinese believe you shouldnt wake someone up whilst they are sleeping because their wondering soul would not take a shit had time to reunite with their body, this relates to the play as all the characters appear to be wondering around in their sleep, not actually realizing they are asleep. The Elizabethan hearing would expect all the images of magic, love and freedom from the name Midsummer Nights Dream and would expect it to be a light hearted roma... ...king as if they were handmade using simply plants. The fairies hair is all golden, long and full of ringlets underneath a headdress of flowers. Shakespeare managed to present ideas of dreaming brilliantly throughout the play. The lovers fell asleep in their dream, what do you dream when you fall asleep in a dream? Is dreaming reality, or reality dreaming? What does a blind person dream if they have seen nothing they wish for or want to aspire to? These questions are created from the play. This shows that Pucks final speech and this weak and idle theme, no more yielding than a dream is not a weak theme after all but something, if messed with can go very wrong or very right. This is illustrated by the admixture up of the love potions in Hoffmans film, something so harmful as love can create so much sadness and pain.
Cormac McCarthys All the Pretty HorsesIn All the Pretty Horses, Cormac McCarthy reveals the limitations of a sentimentalist ideology in the real world. Through his protagonist, John Grady Cole, the author offers three main examples of a mans attempt to live a romantic life in the face of hostile reality a failed relationship with an unattainable woman a romantic and outdated relationship with nature and an idealistic decision to live as an old-fashioned cowboy in an increasingly modern world. In his compassionate description of John Grady, McCarthy seems to endorse these romantic ideals. At the same time, the author makes clear the harsh reality and disappointments of John Gradys chosen way of life. When John Grady leaves Texas at the age of 16, he seems to bring a plan. He wants to become a cowboy and have a close relationship with nature. John Gradys character is hopelessly romantic he takes action without caring virtually repercussions. In All the Pretty Horses, John Grady f alls in have it away with people or things that are unable to love him back at the same level. Whether its his relationship with Alejandra, or his love for horses, it seems as though he is obsessed with these unattainable relationships. When John Grady meets Alejandra, he sets himself up for a situation that provokes conflict. This doesnt seem to bother him, since John Grady is not content to live a life without risk. If anything, it may be that John Grady falls in love with Alejandra because of the potential conflict with her father, the powerful Don Hector. He finds conflict more appealing than harmony because it conforms to his ideal of the dangerous West. When John Grady tells his friend, Rawlins, about his first meeting with Alejandra, the author use... ....McCarthys novel is not about a boy trying to find his place in hunting lodge, but about a boy trying to find himself and who he really is apart from society. John Grady begins the story with no answers, and at the end he still doesnt have a clue. There is no resolution for him there are only more questions, conflicts, and misunderstandings. I think that McCarthys point is that to live romantically is to live without cause, without real hope, and ultimately without love. Despite the authors obvious compassion for John Grady and his idealism, he shows us through romantically descriptive constitution that a romantic lifestyle cannot work in this world. The book ends with John Grady riding out into the sunset, having learned nothing, with no place to go. Until the character learns how to compromise with society and give up his romanticism, his life will have no purpose.
Tuesday, May 28, 2019
Has Slavery Changed since Ancient Times?Slavery has always been a large issue and possibly always will. The issues of today are often negatively charged but did you know that back end in ancient Roman times they were all for it? Well they were The question that will be answered in this assessment is In what ways, if any(prenominal), has slavery changed from ancient to modern times? I believe that slavery has changed very much from the past. Not that at that place may be more or less of it, but that it may be harsher and have worse conditions. In the ancient times slavery was a common and normal thing. In 70 A.D it was estimated that there were slaves in Rome. There were no troubles or controversies over it. Slavery was widespread and most families owned at least one slave. Today there is only one real way to become a slave but in Roman Times (rise of Rome) there were three. 1=Slavery callable to crime committed. 2=Not being a Roman citizen. 3=Taken prisoner by Romans. An example is war. Some of these may seem below the belt but it was the Romans belief in their superiority. There were many types of slaves that were good at different types of jobs. Often, rich families had so many slaves that they didnt really have to do any work around the house at all There were other types of slaves apart from the above. These were Statuliberi = Slaves freed by their masters will. Servi sub unsufructu manumissi =Slaves made free by will stay as slaves. Bona fide servientes = Freemen acting as slave to master Auctorati = Free men who were gladiators, under a contract to their gladiatorial master. Redempti = Freemen captured in war and ransomed back to non-relatives. They worked until they paid off their debt. Coloni adscripti glebae = Free persons who were tenant farmers. These slaves were not treated as a person but as an impersonal asset although they did have their rights. These were non-white rights but they were important for the slaves well-being. The rights were as follows the slave was allowed his personal items (like money etc.), he could not be killed without a good reason. Masters had rights too of course. They could treat a slave anyway they wanted to. They could be abusive, friendly or do anything they wanted to the slave. They could defend themselves against slaves and could kill him/her if the master provided the courts with a good reason.
Has Slavery Changed since Ancient Times?Slavery has always been a large issue and possibly always will. The issues of forthwith are often negative but did you know that back in ancient Roman times they were all for it? Well they were The question that will be answered in this assessment is In what ways, if any, has slavery changed from ancient to modern times? I believe that slavery has changed very much from the past. Not that there whitethorn be more or less of it, but that it may be harsher and have worse conditions. In the ancient times slavery was a familiar and normal thing. In 70 A.D it was estimated that there were slaves in Rome. There were no troubles or controversies over it. Slavery was widespread and most families owned at least(prenominal) one slave. Today there is only one real way to become a slave but in Roman Times (rise of Rome) there were three. 1=Slavery due to crime committed. 2=Not being a Roman citizen. 3=Taken prisoner by Romans. An example is war. sligh tly of these may seem unfair but it was the Romans belief in their superiority. There were many types of slaves that were good at different types of jobs. Often, rich families had so many slaves that they didnt authentically have to do any work around the house at all There were other types of slaves apart from the above. These were Statuliberi = Slaves liberald by their masters will. Servi sub unsufructu manumissi =Slaves made free by will remaining as slaves. Bona fide servientes = Freemen acting as slave to master Auctorati = Free men who were gladiators, under a contract to their gladiatorial master. Redempti = Freemen captured in war and ransomed back to non-relatives. They worked until they paid off their debt. Coloni adscripti glebae = Free persons who were tenant farmers. These slaves were not treated as a person but as an impersonal asset although they did have their rights. These were dismal rights but they were important for the slaves well-being. The rights were as fo llows the slave was allowed his personal items (like money etc.), he could not be killed without a good reason. know had rights too of course. They could treat a slave anyway they wanted to. They could be abusive, friendly or do anything they wanted to the slave. They could defend themselves against slaves and could kill him/her if the master provided the courts with a good reason.
Monday, May 27, 2019
Question Describe the development of T-DNA-based vector systems from the Ti plasmid and the mechanisms of their delivery into plant cells.Answer Tumor-inducing plasmids (Ti plasmids) are used extensively in the construction of vectors and transgenic plants (Binns and Thomashow, 1988). Ti plasmids are 200-kb in size, derived from genus genus Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Gram-negative phytopathogenic soil bacteria that deliver DNA and proteins to plant cells at wound sites, resulting in poll gall tumorigenesis (Chilton et al., 1977).The generation of tumors depends on the induction of a set of Ti plasmid-encoded acerbity (vir) genes acting through a virA/virG regulatory system, which primarily responds to monosaccharide and phenoplast levels released by wounded plants. The transferred DNA (T-DNA) of Ti plasmids is randomly integrated into the plant atomic genome through a process known as non-homologous recombination (NHR) (Offringa et al., 1990).T-DNA is a single-stranded DNA molecul e produced by a virDl/D2-encoded site-specific endonuclease that nicks within two border sequences of 24-bp in length, flanking the T-DNA (van Haaren et al., 1987). After cleavage and excision, the T-DNA binds with the DNA-binding protein VirE2 and the resulting complex is transferred to the plant cell via type IV-type secernment (Zupan and Zambryski, 1995).For genetic engineering purposes, the T-DNA region is modified into a non-tumor generating DNA segment by removal of genes that encode enzymes controlling auxin and cytokinin synthesis. Cloned genes may be inserted into the T-DNA of a Ti plasmid that will eventually be introduced into cultured plant cells, leaf discs or root slices by infection. Genes for antibiotic resistance are withal incorporated into the T-DNA to facilitate selection of transform cells. Transformed cells are cultured in media containing auxins and cytokinins for growth and a specific antibiotic to aid identification of transformed clones. There are reports of successful introduction of foreign genes for disease resistance, herbicide resistance and salt tolerance into commercially important plants. Another way of transforming plants is by immersion of whole plants in a solution containing engineered-Ti Agrobacterium (Bechtold et al. 1993).Transformation may also be performed by exposing whole plants to a solution containing Agrobacterium that is carrying engineered or wild-type Ti plasmids. The plants must be treated in such a way to allow the Agrobacterium to enter tissue, either by applying a vacuum or by treating with detergents.The Agrobacterium penetrates the floral tissue and transforms the developing ovules. Isolation of seeds from these Agrobacterium-exposed plants yields up to 2% of the seeds that are transformed with the T-DNA. This approach is very effectual for molecular genetic studies, such as for characterizing DNA sequences involved in the control of gene expression, or constructing large libraries of institutional m utants.Question Explain why renewal of certain species has been problematical and to what extent this has been overcome.Answer Ti plasmids encounter compatibility problems wherein closely related plasmids exclude each other. The repABC genes have been identified to play a major role in this incompatibility. This problem has been overcome by a curing method (Uragi et al., 2002) which is based on three steps. Firstly, a curing plasmid is introduced, followed by a screening for Ti-less clones by either opine utilization or hybridization by using a highly conserved region of the virulence cluster as probe, and lastly, detection and deletion of the curing plasmid.Question What improvements can be made to the expression systems to overcome some of the objectives of the GM technology?The transition mechanism of Ti plasmids is so powerful that it becomes a concern on whether other crops might be accidentally modified and propagated. Termed as xenogenic plants, these plants result from th e insertion of laboratory-designed DNA for which no naturally evolved genetic counterpart can be found. Such DNA segments may integrate into the plant genome causing rearrangements in the nuclear material which may later result in species differentiation. A silencing mechanism should be constructed to the expression systems of Ti plasmids to overcome such freak accident in GM technology.ReferencesBechtold, N., Ellis, J. and Pelletier, G. (1993) Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer by infiltration of adult Arabidopsis thaliana plants. C. R. Acad. Sci., 316 11941199.Binns, A.N. and Thomashow, M.F., (1988) Cell biology of Agrobacterium infection and transformation of plants. Annu. Rev. Microbiol., 42575-606.Chilton, M.D., Drummond, M.H., Merio, D.J., Sciaky, D., Montoya, A.L., Gordon, M.P. and Nester, M.P. (1977) Stable incorporation of plasmid DNA into higher plant cells The molecular basis of crown gall tumorigenesis. Cell, 11263-271.Matzke, A. J. M. and Chilton, M-D. (1981) Site-spe cific insertion of gene into T-DNA of the Agrobacterium tumor-inducing plasmid An approach to genetic engineering of higher plant cells. J. Mol. Appl. Genet. 1 3949.Offringa, R., De Groot, M.J.A., Haagsman, H.J., Does, M.P., van den Elzen, P.J.M. and Hooykaas, P.J.J. (1990) Extrachromosomal homologous recombination and gene targeting in plant cells after Agrobacterium mediated transformation. EMBO J., 93077-3084.Uragi, M., Suzuki, K. and Yoshida, K. (2002) A novel plasmid curing method using incompatibility of plant pathogenic Ti plasmids in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Genes Genet. Syst. 771-9.van Haaren, M.J., Sedee, N.J., Schilperoort, R.A. and Hooykaas, P.J. (1987) Overdrive is a T-region transfer enhancer which stimulates T-strand production in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Nucl. Acids Res., 15 89838997.Zupan, J., Muth, T., Draper, O. and Zambryski, P. (2000). The transfer of DNA from Agrobacterium tumefaciens into plants a feast of implicit in(p) insights. Plant J., 23 1128.Zupan, J.R. and Zambryski, P. (1995) Transfer of T-DNA from Agrobacterium to the plant cell. Plant Physiol., 107 10411047.
Sunday, May 26, 2019
The profits is becoming the town square for the global vill be on of tomorrow. Bill Gates, Founder of the giant Microsoft Corporations Ltd. meshing has arguably become one of the most indispensible parts of the lives of millions of people around the globe. There are not many laws which regulate the usage of internet for collecting info about the political processes, persona or policies. A popular man can readily get involved in the political process by accessing the internet, reading various articles or news on National Politics and give his/her view on the same.The low cost model of the internet is an powerful tool to involve millions of global citizens and make them active members in the political systems. The article The Citizen Participation Gap Can the Internet Help? points out that the Internet is a medium which cuts across barriers and various sections of the society. It lalwaysages from the varied social, political, and educational backgrounds of the make use ofrs and thus adds multiple dimensions to the process of political participation. It is important to note that the usage of internet and age of the user are inversely proportional.As people grow old their internet usage goes down. For example,, most of the Internet users fall in the age grouping of 18-29 years. These users are active members of various social networking sites and many of them are online to investigate their political participation opportunities. Thus theoretically it could be claimed that it is the widespread reach and use of the Internet which has made it possible for young people ,to become the largest captive audiences to be involved in the process of political participation. One of the recent examples of this could be seen in the Indian politics wherein the ex foreign minister Mr.Shashi Tharoor garnered massive support from his followers on the social networking site twitter while he was forced to resign after being caught in a controversy with the Indian Premier Leagu e. Various online campaigns supporting Shashi Tharoor came up and people expressed their views in the entire process. We are here to say, we support you Shashi Tharoor. Dont let them pull you down for you will take our hopes and dreams for a better and brighter India with you. You bring to India everything we had ever hoped would change, and we stand by you, said a viewer on the Support Shashi Tharoor website.In the ago decade the internet usage among people has gone up. more(prenominal) and more people use the Internet,, and it is being regarded as one of the most powerful mediums giving direct access to a citizen in the political process. Muir believes that the Internet participation of people is the cause of powerful influence. People comment on national or international news, spread their views and comments in the form of blogs and to some cessation are instrumental in deciding the course of political development of a news.Social networking sites like twitter helps people to be directly in touch with their favorite political leaders and give them their views and opinions. This proposal not only increased the participation of citizens but also improved the quality of the projects. Exploring the past and present trends in the use of internet, Coglianese concludes that the Internet will remain a powerful source of information and participation in the future. In conclusion it could be said that in spite of many view points against the use of the internet, the positive influence of Internet on the participation of citizens cannot be denied.The internet provides a common man a platform and gives them a chance to express their opinion and viewpoints, create their profiles, have a group of online supporters and influence changes in the political scenario. The cadence of opportunities that the internet provides and individual to make friends and increase their social networks is massive. No doubt, there are a number of impediments to the efficient application o f an Internet based regime nevertheless, these obstructions can be dealt with in the years to come.. By Uma Subramanian
Saturday, May 25, 2019
According to the showcase Florida seems to be a flourishing prospective market for supplemental insurance. The demographics of the state already display large migration trends resulting in influx of young families coming into the state which is offering them comfort and security with better jobs. According to the 10 year projection of gallium Supplemental, of the activity in the Florida market, the demand for supplemental insurance is bound to increase. This is because of the increasing members in the household in the future years and the fact that most employers in Florida do not provide complete coverage of expenses through insurance. The case depicts the statistics that this particular segment of the market is to grow at 6-7 percent in the side by side(p) 10 years.Another issue which makes Florida an attractive marked for supplemental insurance policies offered by Georgia is that sideline expenses are often not covered on a lower floor medical insurance policies and Georgia su pplemental has managed to tap onto this market by providing policies for large expenses which are not covered by traditional insurance selling companies.The research conducted n 2003 by Benefits Research Inc. stated that an average family spent just about $500 on dental expenses and only about 29 percent of these expenses was focused on preventive care. Similarly, it was found that only 17 percent of the employers n Florida were offering their employees with vision care which is a main crossing and service provided by the Georgia Supplement. This also shows room for a prospective market which can be captured by the company if it decides to expand into Florida.Conclusively, according to the selective information provided in the case it is a very prospective and fruitful venture for Georgia Supplemental to expand into Florida. The decision of the expansion may be middling biased as well as a costly one due to the chief operating officers affiliations with the state but the statist ics and records show that the market is adept for the kind of harvestings offered by Georgia and the company expansion would prove to be successful in the coming years.1. What is your assessment of the proposed direct mail campaign and the promotional letter?Direct mail has already been a successful mode of promotion for financial service and products like credit cards. The assumption in this case is that by using direct mail technique to inform the employers in Florida about the products offered by Georgia the company would be able to promote its product to their future market. This is an appropriate strategy as it tends to drive traffic to the store, pass and increase sales for the company as well as help generate interest and promote the products by promoting brand recognition and cultivating long term relationships with the clients. provided, more perseverance is required on the part of the company. It is mentioned in the case that the CEO has contacts in the Florida region. The company can use these contacts as well as the referrals of the satisfied customers in its other markets to build trust and awareness of the company and its products and services in the Florida market.This can be done by sending out promotional letters by direct mail as mentioned in the case. However another more personalized method would be to hold an event or a conference in Florida where the prospective employers and satisfied customers from other markets could be invited, a promotion pitch can be shown to them and the event would also enable the company to build long term business relationships with their prospective clients.This method of promotion would be more expensive than direct mail and likely to drive up the expenses for the company. This method can even support the direct get off as it would help attract more customers while maintaining the current ones and helping retain them as well.Reference1.Wolf, K., (1998), Planning a Successful Direct merchandise Campaign, WGSC Publications, available at http//cpa.utk.edu/pdffiles/adc9.pdf
Friday, May 24, 2019
1.1BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY car supply or auto split dealers are stores which sells variety of elevator car parts. Some auto supply companies to a fault offers services like car repairs or maintenance and even a car wash. railcar supply has a lot of result line to sell with its either for the performance side (brake fluid, coolant, radiator, engine belts, oil filters, clutch disc, hoses) or the physical side (paintjob, tires, mugs, lights). Some stores are more into car accessories (car alarm system, central lock, sound systems, vinyl, etc.) or tires and mugs selling. Big scale companies tend to give birth only of these. JTU gondola fork up is a culture medium scale family that sells car parts for performance and maintenance of the car. It has been running around 5 years since it was ceremonious January 2008.JTU Auto Supplys name was derived from the initials of Jessie T. Uy who is the owner of the company. From the experience of its owner, Jessie T. Uy of being a taxi dri ver before, He got interested and came up lots of ideas somewhat different car parts that make him successfully established JTU Auto Supply. JTU Auto Supplys main colors are red and discolor because the colors are striking, attractive, and visible. The owner likewise likes the color red because he has Chinese blood. JTU Auto Supply is different compare to other medium scaled auto supply companies because they are keen on having a certain image. They are clean, organized, and has a good structure. An impression to the buyers in proving their tag line Tapat sa Presyo.JTU Auto supply has five physical branches around Cavite located at Pag-asa subdivision which is its main branch, Buhay na tubig, along Molino road near SM Molino, Along Aguinaldo passage and Salitran. Each branch is dependent on their main branch at Pag-asa. They go out varieties of products and selling five main product lines. These are replacement parts, performance, accessories, fluids and chemicals, and tools. T he uses of these for the fomite are for maintenances or performances. Under replacement parts implys air conditioning, battery and accessories, belts and hoses, personify, trim and mirrors, brakes, charging and starting, engine parts, cooling, heating, exhaust fuel, emission, ignition, transmission, wiper and lot more. Under performance includes body styling comp binglents, oil, sealers, and additives, tuners, safety equipment and more. If you go for accessories it includes chrome, dress up, exterior and interior and in like manner for trucks.If you need tools they have for body repair, diagnostic tools, electrical, lift equipment, gloves, work wear, safety equipment, tapes, books and manuals too. Under fluids they have windshield wash, A/C chemicals, antifreeze, de-icers, cleaners, brakes, battery chemicals, fuel system, gasket markers, remover, sealers, grease, lubes, adhesives, paint, body repair, maintenance chemicals, leak detectors and oils. Mr. Jessie T. Uy mentioned that they have approximately 15,000 products all-in-all and over a thousand each product line that they have. The main goal of the JTU business is to give its customers a trust and confidence to buy its products and services. To prove to its customers that JTU Auto Supply is dependable, clean, consistent and honest. For the future, they wanted to be like a convenience store and to franchise its business. This impressions and trusts JTU Auto Supply gives customers an attraction to come back. The tagline Bringing services to your doorstep means offering to the customers, a great services in call of save upy of products.They have free delivery fee and can deliver products within 13-15 kilometer radius from its branches for 10-20 minutes. They pacify offer free delivery beyond the said distance but JTU Auto Supply cannot guarantee the time of delivery. It comes to proponents interest that they never seen a medium scale auto supply have grown this fast yet still having some operational pro blems and transaction flaws. The problems of the company that they often encountered are more often than not in the sales and breed. JTU Auto Supply manually encodes large amount of items in their inventory. Manually affords sales reports from the receipts or sales invoices they have. They also manually go outs and track the inventories in every branches through with(predicate) phone calls, texting or even visiting. This may cause inconvenience in their part especially now that the company starts to grow more.They store their data into Microsoft Excel and open source software such as Quickbook that may cause some security problems in terms to the employees working inside the company. There is a possibility to alter the reports and confidential data. A problem observed is that when it comes to compatibility and specification of the product is hard to find, having lots of practical models in just a single part. Mainly in there free delivery, customers go out not be able to see the product itself and causes a lot of misunderstanding or mistakes on the products they runed.1.2STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMJTU Auto Supply has five physical stores, all of the branches including the main branch are manually introduce, and checking the be items and sold items on each branches inventory is by calling, texting, and visiting each branches. Mr. Jessie T. Uy always visit and call each branches (except if he has emergency appointments) just to check updates of sales and inventory such as its needs of every branches. This is very inconvenient for his part since he has also other businesses and works to do. JTU Auto Supply also manually adds, edit, and delete the large amount of items on the Microsoft Excel which is inconvenient. As of now, they already have approximately 15,000 items but as the company grow, JTU Auto Supply is having difficulty in maintaining their inventory.The data on their company such as inventory files, sales invoice files, reports, and a like are al so not secured because any person or employee can add, edit, view, and delete it on the Microsoft Excel without the permission and not knowing of the owner. They also manually compute and generate the sales report that may lead to data inconsistencies and errors. They generate it using their copy of sales invoice. JTU Auto Supply has some problems in handling orders via telephone. In their operation they take orders what they can see physically and do not deduct it on the main inventory they have, this causes the items to run out of stocks. Example of this is when a customer calls to order a 5 pieces of 1 litre of brake fluids, the employee provide accept the order and deduct on their stores inventory but someone came to the store and buys exactly 5 pieces of 1 litre of brake fluids. The problem is that physically, an employee sees that there are still remaining item on the stores inventory without knowing that someone has already purchased it.1.3RESEARCH OBJECTIVE1.3.1 General Obj ectivesThe proposed JTU Auto Supply Online sales and inventory system aims to develop and provide JTU Auto Supply an Online Sales and Inventory system.1.3.2 Specific Objectives18.104.22.168 Conduct an interview to identify the problems and needs of the company.22.214.171.124 Study existing system to define the company problems and needs.126.96.36.199 assemblage information that will be needed in developing proposed system.188.8.131.52 Analyze gathered information to come up with solutions and in order to design a proposed system.184.108.40.206 Create a system that will be functional and much help for the company.220.127.116.11 Evaluate and test the system and help in maintaining the system.1.4SIGNIFICANCE/JUSTIFICATION1.4.1 To management.JTU Auto Supply will be able to use the online sales and inventory system because it will fix the problems encountered by the employees. These problems particularly are the manual checking and tracking of inventory from one branch to another and manual computation and encoding of sales in Microsoft Excel. The proposed JTU Auto Supply system also will kick upstairs them further through the website to attract more customers. 1.4.2 To customers.The customers would benefit from the proposed system due to its ease in making transaction, creating orders and buying through online. It is convenient for the customers to buy online and deliver it to their doors hassle-free. Customers can check the availability and price of the item they wish to buy anytime without visiting JTU Auto Supply stores.1.4.3 To proponents.The Proponents idea and knowledge in establishing a website will become broader. Techniques and programming skills will be developed and will understand more the programming language that will be used. The study will also help them to understand the process of transactions and real problems in real world business.1.4.4 To future researchers.The study will be useful to the future researchers who will conduct a similar study to JTU Auto Supply Online Sales and In ventory System. The study can serve as the reference in creating the reenforcement of the future studies including its format and content.1.5CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKInputProcessOutput1.6SCOPE OF THE STUDYThe scope of the JTU Auto Supply Online Sales and Inventory system are selling and tracking its products and services through online. It features different categories of the products and services, its prices, their descriptions and modes of payments. The mode of payment is cash-on-delivery basis only. The JTU Auto Supply Online Sales and Inventory system will also allow the customers to avail its products only if the substance abuser has an account to the website. The proposed will have a built-in shopping cart for the list of orders of the customers. Customers can confirm and cancel their orders through shopping cart. Once the order is confirmed, the item will be delivered.The coverage of its delivery is limited only 13-15 km radius of their branches. 15-20 minutes of delivery is guar anteed only if the location is covered in the 13-15km radius. Directions and contact information of JTU Auto Supply are also included for those customers who wish to visit and call directly the branches. Allowing and providing a customers corner will also be included for them to post their questions, inquiries, suggestions and other important concerns regarding the services and products of JTU Auto Supply. The JTU Auto Supply Online Sales and Inventory system will also include the tracking inventory and sold products on every JTU Auto Supply branches.The Pag-asa branch which is the main branch of JTU Auto Supply will be in-charge with the online fiat and delivery of the ordered items. The system will provide an account for administrators of the JTU Auto Supply to control and maintain the system process such as adding, editing, and deleting items on the inventory database. For the communication of each branch, the proposed system will also provide message box or e-mail for the admin istrator to administrator account from one branch to another.
Thursday, May 23, 2019
Coming of Age in multiple sclerosis by Anne Moody is an autobiographic account of a black woman living in South struggling against the centuries old racial discrimination by the white. She passed through almost homogeneous incidences like other members of her race bearing humiliation and disgraceful treatment from the upper white class. Anne Moody narrates the story of herself growing up in multiple sclerosis when racial discrimination against the blacks was the peak.In her account, Anne Moody describes the adversities of living in the south where the black population had just started their essay for equal rights. The life was pathetic for the Negroes with little hopes for emancipation. The elaborate are well described in an easy language and style moving the reader by the depth and emotional appeal it contains. The sentence expression is not so good for Moody not being a professional writer. Anne Moody tells the incredible events of her early childhood living in a household of divorced parents and extreme poverty.She provides a glance over the several death warnings and intentional massacre of her family members and friends by the powerful whites. She developed a incident hatred not only for the whites for her own race too as she writes in the book, I was 15 years old when I began to hate battalion I hated all the whites who were responsible for the countless murders But I also hated Negroes. I hated them for not standing up and doing something almost the murders (129).The life for her and other blacks was no different from that in the slavery days of pre-Civil War period. She tells about a society in which no one cute to live in peace and tranquility. Anne Moodys narrative includes events comparable to both Martin Luther Kings and Henry David Thoreaus Civil Rights tactics, Anne was highly influenced by King. Her book is written in into four parts covering different stages of her life childhood, high school years, college years and participation in th e civil rights movement.These stages greatly resemble Kings four point program of gathering facts, self-purification, negotiation, and direct action (King 290). Black Boy by Richard Wright is another account equal to Annes. an autobiography initially published in 1945, focus on the many hardships African Americans faced as individuals and families. Similar to Annes, Richards father his family when he was very young. They were left over(p) with their mother making her to be devastated by and ending up with a stroke.Richard had to start working at a prime age to look later on his mother and siblings. The two narratives are only different being penned by and from a male and female perspective. Annes book is about the inner struggle within her and about the conflicts she had with society and her own fellow blacks. The title of the book, Coming of Age in Mississippi clearly talks of the subject matter inside. It is a story of growing up or coming of age, getting mature in a highly div ided society in the state of Mississippi undergoing a struggle and change.It provides an insight and understanding of historical importance of the events taking place in the years of Civil Rights Movement. The book gives a good valuation of the sufferings of the black population and their hard struggle for getting petty and basic rights. Works Cited King, Martin Luther Jr. Letter from Birmingham City Jail from A Testament of Hope. harpist Collins, 1991 Moody, Anne. Coming of Age in Mississippi. Delta, New York, February 2004 Wright, Richard. Black Boy. Harper Perennial Modern Classics. September 1, 1998
Wednesday, May 22, 2019
Americans developed many types of national governments between 1775 to 1789. Each of these variations in centralized governments served different purposes through out this time period. They as well represented the ideologies and fears of the people in how they were regarded, em top executiveed, and organized.One of the initiative unified fronts that the colonial evidences presented in a form of centralized governments was the establishment of the Second relation. The Second Congress met on May 10, 1775 in Philadelphia. It had many of the same restrictions that the First Congress had when it met in September 1774. Their purpose was to perform in two contradictory ways. First they had to raise capital for an army. All the while negotiating a reconciliation with England.Some of the delegates included, John Hancock, John and Samuel Adams, John Dickinson, George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, and throng Madison. Although these delegates were, for the most part, of the same mind in 1 775, times would later change them influencing all of them in different political directions.This Congress had virtually no power. They did non have any authority to write or change laws. But they could raise an army, finance the state of contend, gathering a pro-independence coalition, and they could explore diplomatic alliances with foreign countries.So little power was given to Congress, by the states, because of a deeply embedded fear of a powerful centralized government. Unwilling to repeat the mistake do in Britain, placing so much power in such a small governing body, was something that the states strived to not repeat. And they kept that in mind when they elected to outline the Articles of confederation.The Articles of Confederation, drafted by John Dickinson in May 1775, allowed Congress to issue bills, borrow m hotshoty, to settle all disputes between states, and to administer unsettled western lands. However, many state governments did not like the last two provisio ns (settle disputes between states and control all western lands). Those issues would cause Congress to debate the Articles for years.To amend the Articles, all states had to unanimously agree to the changes. Again the second class powers given to the national government was due to the states fear of an all-powerful central government. For it could capabilityly jeopardize the freedoms of the people it governed. besides like it had when the king of England and Parliament passed various revenue generating revenuees on the colonies without representation.By 1781 economic turmoil began to weaken the rawly formed confederation of the states. The cost of the war had plunged the colonies into economic demandingship. From 1781 to 1788 is known as the critical period. After the change the first priority was to pay for the war itself.Congress had given land certificates to solders that fought in the war against the British, as payment for their service. They had also printed money to pa y for the military supplies and pay solders, but the money was never backed by hard money. Hard money is gold or silver. In 1775 this printed money had some value, but it was virtually worthless by 1781. Many states had also printed paper money in excess, as well. Further confusing and disrupting the economy and plunging the country into deeper economic debt.Even though Congress was granted the right on to print money, it did not have the right to tax. Without the might to tax, Congress had no means of collecting revenue to pay for the war. A weakness that was discovered when Robert Morris served as Superintendent of Finance for the Confederation from 1781 to 1784.Morris originally proposed a five-percent impost tax on all imported goods into the country. But most coastal states already had impost taxes, which they used to pay for their potions of the war debt. Also Congress did not have the authority to impose such taxes on the states populations according to the Articles of Conf ederation. Nor did they have any means of enforcing compliance of such tax laws. This proposal was in short dropped.A second image by Morris called for a nationally supported bank that would hold Congresss hard money along with different investors and private citizens. In return the bank would give the government short-term loans. This architectural plan also allowed the bank to print banknotes. Banknotes were paper money that was backed by hard money in the bank vaults therefore they would not depreciate in value. The theory behind this was that with paper money backed by hard money it would provide the nation with some economic stability.Morris national bank worked with limited success. The bank was relatively small it printed little money (even thought it real printed more paper money than what it could back in hard money) for circulation. Therefore, it had limited impact on the economy providing little stability.In the fall of 1786 the economic troubles of the Confederation reached a peak. Armed men threatened the courts in Massachusetts over the newfoundly imposed taxes passed by the state. Not only were additional taxes passed, but also the state insisted that they be paid in hard money. Most citizens at the time had little hard money on hand.This caused many to arm themselves again, in protest against the hardships that the government was imposing on them. Daniel Shays was the leader, who was a farmer, and also had served as a captain in the Continental army during the revolution. Shays, with 2,500 other, marched on the courts of Massachusetts. James Bowdoing, governor of Massachusetts at the time, quickly put the rebellion down. Later this uprising would be called Shays Rebellion.The significance of Shays Rebellion was that it demonstrated that the nation was still in unrest. Originators of the revolution found themselves on the other side of the t open. In their efforts to repay the war debt and maintain a standard of living and success of their businesses, they had placed economic hardships on the people in the form of excessive taxes. Although Congress and the state governments had few options (one being to print money in excess or to heavily tax the people), some thought that there was a better way.Economic problems come from the simple fact that all thirteen states printed their own money. Some states (with strong economies Virginia and spic-and-span York) relied on taxes solely to repay their portions of the war debt quickly. While other states that had poor economies simply printed more money to compensate for monetary fluctuations. One theory was that if a unified economy could be established it would help ease the situation and growing tensions. But to have that you would need a unified national government, one with more powers than the present Congress had to manage it.At the prompting of James Madison, the Virginia legislature called a merging of the states. The way this meeting was called bypassed the confeder ation Congress. The purpose of this meeting was to try and modify the Articles of Confederation, to give Congress power to regulate trade in hopes to improve the economic problems. But only five of the nine states, which concord to participate, attended. Out of those who did attend, all had the same impression of a pending national crisis. So the meeting was rescheduled for Philadelphia in May 1787 in order to try and spoil more participants to attend.During the time it took for a quorum to gather, Madison and the Virginian delegates drafted a fifteen-point plan, which totally restructured the confederation. Once the seriousness was reveled of what was really under discussion, it was unanimously decided to keep all of the transactions completely confidential. To help keep order, George Washington was elected to preside over the convention.Virginia was the first to propose vast changes in the federal government. Their plan, presented by Edmund Randolph, called for a three-branch g overnment. With a two chamber legislature, a powerful executive, and judiciary branch. This government operated directly on the people. Congress had the right to veto state legislation, coerce states militarily to go after national laws, and to legislate in areas were states are incompetent. The executive and judiciary branch could veto jointly any legislation presented by Congress. To say the least this plan was heavily debated. But it did not meet any out right opposition.William Paterson, who was from New Jersey, presented an alternative plan in mid June. This plan became know as the New Jersey Plan and resembled some of the Articles of Confederation. It had a single house Congress in which the states would have one vote. But it would have a dual-lane three-man presidency, of who were elected by Congress. This three-man group took the place of the executive and judiciary branches. This plan gave vast powers to Congress it was allowed to regulate trade, and to use force on unrul y states. However, the plan still rested on the confederation principle of the national government that was to be an assembly of states and not of the people.A compromise later broke the obese debates over the two plans. By mid July it was agreed that the new form of government should be a three-branch government with supreme power over the states and two-chambered legislature (with a Lower House of Representatives appointed by population and the Senate who represented each state). In the Senate the two senators could vote independently of each other. This was the first emergence of the present day federal government a government based on the representation of the people.The attached hurtle was to define who the people were. In southern states they had large majorities of people who could not vote, but would give power to them through the new form of Congress. But these people were slaves the debate was, are they citizens or are they property. To the southern states they were citi zens, with the idea that they would allow more power for them in the Congress. However, smaller northern states with little or no slaves viewed them as property. Who had no right to representation in Congress. This debate created what is known as the three-fifths clause. Which stated that only three-fifths of the non-voting population could be counted when deciding the number of representatives in Congress.With most of the problems out of the way, the next step was to have the thirteen states ratify the new form of government. Only nine states needed to ratify, and pass, the proposal in order to make it law, however, it was going to be an up hill battle. For the states would not give up their powers so easily.The proponents of the new government called themselves Federalist opponents to the new government took the name of Anti-Federalist. By May 1788, eight of the states sign the proposal. To help gain more support, the federalists James Madison and John Jay wrote a series of essay s called The Federalists Papers. The essays started in October 1787, and totaled eighty-five altogether. They were published in New York newspapers in hopes to win the states vote for the new government. New York was critical to the success of the proposal, after Virginia, New York was the next most influential state. If New York could be persuaded to pass the new form of government it would assure solidity and legitimacy to the new government.Even though Virginia and New Yorks ratification was not necessary to the passing of the new government, the federalists wanted to have a unanimous vote. Having these two states would help in pulling the remaining two states in (North Carolina and Rhode Island) into a unanimous agreement among the thirteen states. These two states did finally ratify the new government, but not until May of 1790, and at that, they barely ratified the new government by only a two-vote margin.Prior to the revolution the ideology that prevailed was that government should be local, and directly represent the people. If a government was to be too large and to far from the people it served, it had the potential to become a dictatorship in its management of country affairs. But because of the economic strain of the war, the thirteen different economies and monetary systems were not adequate. Nor could they stabilize the political economy of the confederacy.A few politicians of the time (like James Madison and Alexander Hamilton) had a vision of a more powerful centralized government that would be able to bring the states in line with national policy and help to stabilize the local economies. While showing the world a unified front among the states. several(prenominal) debates would develop over the idea of a more powerful government over such things as the definition of representation by population, the western territories, and the power of the states vs. the power of the federal government and Congress.Compromises, persuasive arguments, and essa ys would have to be made by everyone. But finally, in May of 1790, the thirteen states would agree on a larger, more powerful federal government. Which had authority over the states in matters of taxation, trade, and fundamental laws that transverse state lines.
Tuesday, May 21, 2019
Daniel Dafoes popular novel, origin anyy titled The Life and Strange Surprizing Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, Mariner Who lived Eight and Twenty Years, all alone in an lonely Island on the Coast of America, near the Mouth of the Great River of Oroonoque Having been cast on Shore by Shipwreck, wherein all the Men perished only if himself. With an Account how he was at last as strangely deliverd by Pyrates (iii), like most classics underwent many editions through the years. However energy but the first edition, which is the basis of this essay, can give us the look and feel of the time as intended to be shown by the author.Early new-fangled positionAccording to Volume 14 of The Cambridge History of English and American Literature in 18 Volumes, Early Modern English period mark the expansion of the commit of the English language outside England. But since English was spread at various times it has been subjected to opposite influences and additional variations ca util ise by attempts at etymological spelling (Ward et al ch 15 sec 3 par 1). These were evident in the novel in two aspects of language grammar and vocabulary (Ward et al ch 15 sec 1 par 1-2).Among the inflectional changes during the early new-fangled English was the dropping of the weak vowel in verbs ending in ed (Ward et al. ch 15 sec 4 par. 7). Examples of these manifested not only in the title (the word deliverd) but within the text itself such as heraldd, filld, encreasd, and fatigud. Spelling also appeared to be phonetically defective (Ward et al. ch 15 sec 3 par. 1) with words like perswasions, lyon, lye, and prophetick. Compounding of words were also used in the novel by examples of free-school, hand-maids, ground-tackle and fellow-slave. However, the change in the verbs as well as the defects in spelling was not applied to the entire novel which makes us consider the reasons for such use.Towards a Purity in StyleDaniel Defoe, in his book An audition upon Projects, emphasize d that it was the responsibility of the society to polish and refine the English tongue and to purge it from all the irregular additions that ignorance and affectation have introduced as befitted the noblest and most comprehensive of all the vulgar languages in the world (8). The spread of the English language was depicted in the novel when Robinson Crusoe t each(prenominal)es his servant Friday the English language. We may notice from an excerpt of their discourse below that although essentially Crusoe and Friday came to communicate effectively with each other(a), Fridays English differs much from Crusoes parallel to their difference in status and origin Friday, My Nation suffer much, for all that.Master, How beat if your Nation beat them, how come you to be taken? Friday, They more many than my Nation in the Place where me was they take one, two, three, and me my Nation over beat them in the yonder Place, where me no was there my Nation take one, two, great Thousand. Master, But why did not your Side recover you from the Hands of your Enemies then? Friday, They run one, two, three, and me, and make go in the Canoe my Nation have no Canoe that time. (Defoe, Robinson Crusoe 254) Much is the same circumstance that brought about the variations and additions to the English language in which Defoe is clamoring for purity (An Essay upon Projects 8).Shoar and Shore. Aside from the defective spelling mentioned earlier is the variation in the spelling (Ward et al. ch 15 sec 3 par. 1). An example if this is the word shore, spelled shore and shoar, in different context of the novel. It may be noted that shoar was only used in the part of Robinson Crusoes mishaps. That is to say, from the part of his captivity at Sallee until before his wreck on the island. These mishaps, Crusoe later reflected on, were results of his ignorance in the Providence of God and malcontent thus the use of the spelling shoar. While his solitary life in the island described the learning mold he underwent to survive and finally live harmoniously with his surroundings hence the renewed use of the spelling shore. In this regard, one may interpret that the use of the word was intentional to show the need and difficulty in creating a standard for the English language.viz. and (viz.). The use of foreign language in novels is quite common throughout the ages. As such, we came to attention on the use of the Latin word viz. Oxford English Dictionary defines viz. as the abbreviation of that is to say which generally means namely or that is to say (1033). Although Defoe used viz. without parenthesis and viz. in parenthesis based on the same definition, its betrothal in the statement are quite different. The viz. without parenthesis was used in identifying and qualifying statements such as the All the rest of that Day I spent in afflicting my self at the dismal Circumstances I was brought to, viz. I had neither Food, House, Clothes, Weapon, or Place to fly to (Robinson Crusoe 82 ). On the other hand, viz. in parenthesis, which appeared in lines like This was what I wishd for so I took them up, and servd them as we serve notorious Thieves in England, (viz.) wait ond them in Chains for a Terror to others (Robinson Crusoe 138), was used as such in order to explain earlier statement. The use of parenthesis to split up the use of the same word in the novel further reflects Defoes quest for refinement of the English language as mentioned previously.ConclusionIndeed, regardless of the plan of the story which categorized it to fiction, the culture and language of the time is unmistakable. Robinson Crusoe, in its original version, allows us the indulgence to peek and appreciate not only the early modern English language but the period as well. The flexibility of the language then reflected the society of that time as it has always been for any period or era. At the same time, the novel provided additional venue for the author to disseminate his ideas and further his individual attempt towards the transition to the modern English language and insertions to the brilliance of learning across the spectrum of the society. Such power language has to influence its readers, whether consciously or unconsciously. And the duality that the novel showed made it a favorite among children and adults alike. Fulfilling its objectives to entertain and pass around (however subtle it may be).Works CitedDefoe, Daniel. An Essay Upon Projects. advanced York Adamant Media Corporation, 2005. Print. . The Life and Strange Surprizing Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, Mariner Who lived Eight and Twenty Years, all alone in anuninhabited Island on the Coast of America, near the Mouth of the Great River of Oroonoque Having been cast on Shore by Shipwreck, wherein all the Men perished but himself. With an Account how he was at last as strangely deliverd by Pyrates. London printed for W. Taylor, 1719. Print. Oxford English Dictionary. New York Oxford University Pr ess, 2005. Print. Ward, Aldolphus William, Sir, et al. The Cambridge History of English and American Literature. New York G.P. Putnams Sons, 1907-21 New York Bartleby.com, 2000 (Web) April 1, 2009.
Monday, May 20, 2019
The Decline in the Ecological Quality of the woodland, Heathland and Wetland Areas in the New Forest
The saucy timber, a beautify enjoyed by umteen as a wonderful relent from the bustle of city life, An abundance of species abundant habitats, a place of solitude, as open space to be valued and keep abreastd for both present and future generations. To many the impudent lumber may come on an unchanging mosaic of woodwind, heath and wet state of matter interlocked with sm totally rural settlements whose traditional character seem almost timeless. up to forthwith beneath this uniquely picturesque landscape lies an milieu which is both complex and forever changing, a landscape which d mavin history, has been heavily influenced by man and his activities.The precise role of man and the influence he is having upon the infixed surround a lot creates a complex set of centering issues. These issues embody non only concerns for the environment but often have frugal implications for the wider community. The rising woodland is a good example of this it has many conflicting uses and hence requires management. Figure two displays this range of habitats.HabitatArea/haHeathland/ vinegarish Grassland11740Valley Mires and Wet Heaths238Unenclosed Deciduous Woodland4049Statutory Silvicultural Enclosures8100Unenclosable(open to exercise of common rights)19028Fig2 The proportions of assorted habitatsIt is the largest eye socket of unsown vegetation in lowland Britain. Each habitat is affected differently by different uses, which in the past may have caused a celestial latitude in their ecological tonus, it is both these uses and the management strategies associated with them that will be the focus of this article.History of Landuse and focal pointThe forest became appointed to the crown as magnificent Forest nine hundred years ago, it was used as a reservation for deer and house servant stock. This graze and browsing limited the change of trees and shrubs. It is currently chthonian the management of the Forestry focal point as dilate in the Forestr y and New Forest acts. The Forestry Commission is responsible for the ancient and ornamental gauges and their timber enclosures this is refered to as the extremum Land. They atomic number 18 required to give priority to conservation of the forests traditional character. They practice forestry in the Silvicultural Enclosures and have a responsibility for managing the unfenced forest. The New Forest Heritage playing bea will be referred to as the New Forest. The common land within the perambulation will be referred to as the Open Forest. Privately possess and fenced lands will be refered to as Enclosed lands.Fig 1Dockens areaFig 3 The New Forest Heritage AreaTen Verderers became responsible for management of communal animals depastured in open forest. They correct the right of the common promoting the improvement of grazing for the commoners. However these days at that place are strict guidelines which commoners must adhere to, to try to ensure the retention and whatsoev ertimes improvement of the landscape quality. In July 1994 the government recognized the New Forest as a unique area giving it similar protection as a national park. It also possesses other designations, it is a SSSI although this offers protection from development it offers little in the instruction of conservation. In 1996 the New Forest Committee published a management plan entitled A strategy for the New Forest its individual aims and strategies will be assessed doneout this article. The Committee represents the principal central and topical anaesthetic anesthetic government organisations in the forest who includeCountryside CommissionEnglish NatureForestry CommissionHampshire County CouncilNew Forest District CouncilVerderers of the New ForestSalisbury District CouncilTest Valley Borough CouncilWiltshire County Council (as Observers)Country Landowners Association discipline Farmers Union (as Observers)The development of a management strategy like The New Forest Strategy is crucial as it recognises the interests of all groups bear on, although the participation of so many organisations that often have conflicting interests may often make management difficult.Today most of the New Forest exists as a pastoral deliverance based on the exercise of common rights and grazing. The community of farmers made up of between three to quartet hundred commoners depend upon this for their livelihoods hence the combination of this and conservation makes management more difficult.It is thought that grazing has had a greater effect on vegetation than peat cutting and deforestation, indeed it is thought the landscape has evolved to its present body politic through the effects of grazing. In each area ecological quality is affected differently by a variety of different uses, so it will be necessary to assess the deny of each one in turn.WoodlandAlthough there are both Silvicultural enclosures and ancient unenclosed deciduous tone it is the later that possess the mo st nature conservation value. The silvicultural enclosures though contain approximately 40% of oak and Beech some containing unmodified former pasture woodland. Because these enclosures have been less grazed than the unenclosed woodland contain many rare plants including bastard balm and the lungwort. These enclosures also contain large populations of predatory birds such(prenominal) as Buzzards and sparrow hawks.Fig 4 Native trees during floodOak and Beech dominate the unenclosed deciduous woodland, Oaks being more dominant on heavier soils varying in proportion. Under this terminateopy Holly dominates along with maple and hawthorn. Older oaks contain the richest woodland lichen flora in Lowland Europe while insectivorous birds colonize decaying timber. This area is open to the exercise of common rights and has been for many years, indeed this habitat is Semi-natural, and exists as a Plagioclimax. at that place has been more than research to determine whether this grazing of do mestic stock has caused an ecological redress in these forests The animals can be rattling selective hence the less edible plants may become the most dominant. As a result much research has been undertaken to assess the effects of grazing on woodland. This is in many ways an attempt to determine the level of grazing necessary to prevent further damage to the environment and slow down any ecological decline associated with it.During 1960 Dr George Peterken established The age structure of the enclosed woodlands was cerebrate to fluctuations of large herbivores since at least the eighteenth century. He also found that the most recent periods of revolution of woodland were 1860-1910 and 1930-1945. The first of these followed the killing of most of the deer population after the order of the deer conservation act in 1851, while the second was due to a slow market and a jibe reduction in stocks. This had a dramatic effect on the landscape and remains proof of the restrict effect of grazing both on woodland quality and area, as it followed the generation of new trees in adjacent areas. However nowadays commoning has been more intensive and there have been too many invertebrates to exit such natural regeneration.Cl archaean Herbivores influence species composition and age structure of woods so much so that in the New Forest today elmwood lime and hazel no continuing make up the canopy of the majority of woodland. Research by Prof. Barber of Southampton Univ. has highlighted these reductions in diversity. His pollen diagrams show that elm and lime die out suddenly. He attributes this to them being felled and failing to regenerate. He has also documented a decline in hazel and its disappearance recently.Documentary evidence from 16th and 17th centuries shows hazel to be common. All of this evidence shows a slow maturation in browse resistant holly, a decline in ecological quality, which can only be attributed to selective grazing. In comparing this to private forest of similar edaphic quality that has mainly been coppiced we find hazel still abundant along with a rich herb layer. This is in comparison to the sparse herb layer of the grazed area, which comprises of around a hapless thirty species. The ungrazed area also contains many lichens and deadwood invertebrates, hence a wide variety and species richness.Management of WoodlandThe New Forest Committee in their Strategy for the New Forest recognises thatGrazing in open forest by sheep and cattle has a strong influence on the age regeneration and species type of the vegetationThey also recognise that the be and proportions of ponies to cattle have a significant effect on the ecology of the forest. It refers to The Lingworth Report on grazing. It suggests that pony and cattle premium schemes and marking fees should be used as a mechanism for influencing numbers turned out. Recent research however has shown that social and cultural factors play a greater role in decision making. The re port recognises that commoning is poor source of income for commoners and that restrictions on landuse and stock numbers may have profound effects on their livelihoods and the local economy.The Forestry commissions policy is to conserve woodland as an essential component of the traditional character of the forest. Part of the New Forest review recommends thatThe maximum feasible area of native area of broardleaved component should be grown on the longest feasible rotations, and the possibility of restoring some conifer plantations to broardleave should be investigated.Such recommendations are encouraging for conservation however the actual implementation may be more difficult to put into practice, while the affects of any recent measures are too early to assess. Unfortunately it is difficult for the Forestry Commission to assess the extent of deterioration or have any checker over development in the privately owned forests. This is identified in the Strategy for the New Forest, it recognisesChanges in the design and siting of new planting, changes in management practices and species composition and loss of hedgerows all have primary(prenominal) implications for the forest as a wholeIndeed comparison of the area today to that recorded in the New Forest by English Nature during 1994 shows a reduction in quality of the landscape. It identified 94 sites livelihood ancient woodland amounting to 2330ha in privately owned areas. The Report identifies that 37% of ancient woodland from these areas has now been replanted with conifers.HeathlandsThese are the result of mans activities particularly burning over the last three thousand years and are hence regarded as Semi-natural. Heathlands similar to woodlands have been grazed throughout history. Some heaths were part of the commoning system these are outside the Crown lands and have been enclosed since the 19th Century. Some heath is unenclosed on higher(prenominal) ground. The fringes of the forest in the west have extensive heaths. The heaths inside the perambulation have become truehearted through recreational use and gravel extraction, this has contributed to much fragmentation and a reduction in this habitat. pubic hair encroachment has become a particular problem and has led to a reduction in bio-diversity through competition.Grazing by Ponies is believed to have led to the rapid decline in populations of Dwarf Gorse an important component of the heath. The evidence is indicating that knock offland is expanding while heathland contracts and this is leading to a decline in the ecological quality of the forest. It is thought and shown by observation that this is apparent where there is intensive grazing and trampling. In 1973 Dr Colin Tubbs showed that areas of heath that had been burned-over failed to regenerate due to the grazing pressure. Heathlands support birds like the Dartford Warbler, which in the New Forest has been put under threat by grazing.In 1974 Colin Bibby conducted a n ational survey of Dartford Warbler populations he concluded that burning and expectant grazing had reduced the birds habitat namely the heathlands, and had hence he attributed a decline in populations of Dartford Warbler to this decline in habitat. It is thought by entomologists that insects particularly butterflies were more frequently sited during the 1930s. However this is difficult to place matter of course on as much of the data is unreliable. They have found that species such as High Brown, darkling Green, Pearl Bordered and many other rare species, which were abundant, are now confined to local areas. During the 1930s there was less grazing, both this and the higher diversity and this can be said is proof of this ecological decline.Colin Tubbs has verbalised concern over buzzard populations who rely on heathlands as their habitat. Competition with large vertebrates is causing them to decline through limiting the number of small ground vertebrates such as rabbits by over g razing. This is the fundamental Hypothesis surrounding much of Colin Tubbs calculate in this area. He established in 1973 that there was a large fall in buzzard production with only one out of six pairs know to rear young since then the number of successful pairs has stayed below the levels during the 1960s.This followed a large fall in the number of small rodents counted in southern England during 1970. It is difficult to place much reliability on this data. The grazing by ponies continues to be intensive and remain so unless the Forestry Commission takes action. toyions such as the erecting of fences are of little use, as Ponies seem to have a remarkable ability to leap over fences. The Forestry Commission has had to dedicate time to the removal of Ponies and this can often be very costly.Management Of HeathlandsThe Heathlands are managed by the Forestry Commission, during 1986 the New Forest Review group recommended that some conifer or open woods should be returned to open he athland to reduce there decline, purely in the interests of conservation. The Forestry Commission has already started this holistic antenna away from the economic needs of forestry to those of conservation. Many of the proposals depict in the Strategy for the New Forest aims towork with landowners to conserve and extend heathland reinstating traditional management where possible RA3.73b.8.This will be possibly hard to implement, as the economic needs of commoners may be difficult to overcome in the pursuit of conservation. This may only be possible through the adoption of joint marketing of Forest animals and produce to offset the financial implications of this proposal. This is outlined in section 4.1.6 of the report. The Forestry Commission is responsible for the management of the majority of these areas and there is a tendency for their economic implications to override those of conservation.Management also aims toRaise awareness of the ecological importance of heathland and en courage local support for its conservation RA3.7c.This is important as raising awareness of the public can lead to involvement through voluntary organisations which can lead to a reduction in expenditure by government and an increase in the amount of positive management for conservation. Although this is hard to implement as it often involves some pricy form of interpretative media.All these policies aim to restore and recreate heathland, although the effects of these actions to the problems already discussed are not yet visible.WetlandsThe New Forest possesses ninety valley mires of which there are only 120 in the whole of Europe, these have high conservation importance. Draining during the 1950s and 60s has lead to a reduction in the ecological quality of these environments. Restoration of these areas is important as some pockets contain unique flora and flora, an immense biological richness. They provide both grazing and piddle for forest animals. Rare species include slender c otton grass (Eriophorum gracile), bog orchid (Hammarabga paludose) which are very rare in Southern England.The Forestry Commission previously had a duty to drain many mires in an effort to fulfil the statutory obligations of The New Forest Act of 1949. Unfortunately it is only recently that the importance of this habitat ecologically has become realised. It is now part of the New Forest special area of conservation and is both a RAMSAR wetland and a SSSI. The most important Mires are determined in the Crown lands. The wetlands also include many rivers and their floodplains, while there are historic water meadows and fifty ponds, these also posses high bio-diversity and require management. Many of the streams are rare due to there battery-acid nature hence they support rare species.There has been a reduction in the ecological quality of these areas by modifying or straitening of the marine channels. Low levels in the Rivers and streams have been attributed to a lowering of the water send back by boreholes and streams.Management of WetlandsIn relation to rivers and streams, the Environment Agency has developed a Catchment management plan for the New Forest. Which is concerned with the future management of these areas. The recommended actions associated with this management I am unaware of.In relation to mires the Strategy aims to specify and enhance damaged valley mires RA3.8b0This involves techniques to slow the flow of water restoring levels of water to how they were before drainage. This is achieved by pose small dams along small ditches in an attempt to drain the mire. It tries to mimic natural channel impede it is hoped that this will halt headwald erosion. Deep channels have developed in some places, which are a hazard to livestock and damaging to the mire. The Forestry Commission has been aiming to infill these with local material to hope that they blend in with surrounding heathland vegetation.Again many of these important areas of conservation occur in the Crown land i.e.- Mires. In one of its recommended actions the Forestry Commission work with land managers and advise them in areas where conservation may not be the land managers highest priority.In Relation to this the strategy aims toIdentify wetland features important to the traditional character of the New Forest and work with landowners/land managers to secure their conservation. RA3.8a, see also RA3.3c0It is clear now that the New possess a very complex range of management issues and that successful management will require great co-operation between all groups who have an interest for one reason or another in the New Forest.
Sunday, May 19, 2019
The bitance of medicinal drug is undeniable in today s society. It plays an of import portion in mundane life we hear it on the wireless(prenominal), on the telecasting, in churches, in the supermarket we bound to it, relax to it and ar refreshed by it. We seem to necessitate it in fact it is hard to apprehend of society without some signifier of music. Such an indispensable demand would warrant its inclusion in any(prenominal) school degree of study ( Gilbert 1992, p.6 ) .The cardinal attainments that underpin music as a first-string topic atomic number 18 moveable to a broad scope of other crease of study countries. Harmonizing the discipline course of study Teaching should guarantee that listening, and using cognition and apprehension, argon developed through and through the matching accomplishments of performing , constitution and appraising ( DfEE/QCA, 1999 ) . Listening is cardinal accomplishment within totally told internal course of study topics, i n peculiar literacy, to which hearing is a major portion of the cognition, accomplishments and understanding content. Listening is a accomplishment to which befools moldiness develop if they are to pass on efficaciously. In every facet of the primary course of study, hearing is a accomplishment that needs changeless development.Appraising is the tem utilize to by the national course of study for measuring music. To measure efficaciously, in a musical sense, a kid must use their hearing accomplishments. Boys and Spink agree that appraisal implies active listening with a specific intent in head and is a manner of coming to cognize and understand music . Appraisal is a personalized engagement with a piece of music, examine and contrasting, ways of bettering and how it makes you experience. This accomplishment can be transferred into many computer program countries such(prenominal) as showing an sentiment on a piece of poesy in literacy, comparing one balance to another in gymna stic exercises and the two stars and wish system of equal appraisal. make-up is the originative facet of music within the national course of study. It involves making a piece of music with an connotation. It involves thoughts, possibilities, outlining and re outlining to make a coveted result and doing opinions about what is successful and why ( Jones and Robson, 2008 ) . The accomplishments that are obligatory for composing music are farther highlighted by Boys and Spink, Pupils have acquired a immense scope of movable accomplishments such as teamwork, co-operation and working to a brief or deadline every bit good as preserve grounds of their accomplishment ( 2008 ) .The most successful music lessons manage to integrate all of these elements of accomplishment within the one lesson taking to a public presentation of some description. The apogee of hearing, measuring and composing leads to a public presentation. Whilst on practical learning arrangement I managed to detect several music lessons in a Year One category that contained these elements. First the kids listened to their instructors say her name changing the discard high and low and utilizing long and short notes. The category so had to reiterate back utilizing the same pitch. The kids could so propose at that place ain manner of singing their full name, changing the pitch and nuance of their voices. The kids so sang their ain name to the category if they wanted to, in a safe scene, promoting the less confident kids to make so, reassuring the kids that they could non acquire it incorrect. Music has an exceeding manner of promoting kids as a kid does non hold to be musically adept to be successful. One piece of music may do a kid feel sad whilst make another kid happy.Music is a highly adaptable topic that can be apply to develop accomplishments in other countries of the course of study. A piece of classical music can be used in an art lesson to paint a vocal , leting kids artistic freedom, to ut ilize different coppice shots, colorss and forms. Music can likewise be used with topics that are non within the same bunch such as geographics. The national course of study provinces in its breath of survey that during the cardinal phase, students should be taught the cognition, accomplishments and understanding through a scope of unrecorded and recorded music from different times and civilizations ( DfEE/QCA, 1999 ) . This enables a rugged cross-curricular nexus to geographics. It is of import that kids explore other states and their civilization, specially its humanistic disciplines and music. Music is a basis of many societies which can take us to a great understanding about that civilization. Children can see this through listening to music indigen of assorted states all over the universe and experimenting with different instruments.In today s multicultural society it is indispensable that kids are exposed to a assortment of civilizations so they can exert regard and devel op cognition and machination. Jones and Robson concur, precept that the rules underpinning this are non merely that the kids themselves in the category that you teach will be drawn from diverse backgrounds that all kids turning up in a multicultural society are entitled to a course of study that reflects the diverseness of the state, further than that, kids are progressively required to hold on the planetary place of issues and some grasp of cultural assortment will enable this wider apprehension ( 2008 ) .Geography it seems has an unsure futurity harmonizing to Tilbury and Williams, In some states the separate individuality of the topic is non recognized while in others it is frequently squeezed into pick out constructions as force per unit areas mount on the limited sum of course of study clock time ( 1997 ) . Geography has a batch to offer in enriching the primary course of study, the accomplishments that are taught and developed are particularly broad runing. Their spaci al consciousness is developed by practising their map reading and doing accomplishments this is a strong nexus to the understanding belongingss of place and motion country of mathematics in the National Curriculum besides when roll uping and construing informations when reading graphs and studies. This gives the handling informations country mathematics and existent life state of affairs that it is used in geographics when analyzing information about other states. Childs have the chance to develop their experimental accomplishments through secondary beginnings such as artifacts, narratives, images and exposure. Not merely does this nexus to developing other humanistic disciplines topics such as history but besides in originative topics such as art. Bing able to get and explicate and knock utilizing assorted artifacts is a valuable tool.Although the accomplishment set from geographics is good to kids, in today s quickly changing universe, it is going of all time more critical to be triping interesting in geographical and environmental scientific discipline. It may be a kid that takes an intimacy in the environment and sustainable development within a primary schoolroom, who has that concern nurtured throughout their instruction and is the 1 that developed a sustainable fuel we can all unrecorded with, basically modify the universe.In decision,English speech production and listening programmes which target the National Curriculum ( and besides the parvenue Curriculum for Excellence in Scotland ) every bit good as the aims of the National Literacy Strategy ( NLS ) model. Teachers notes are besides available.Geography promotes attitudes and regard.The sameness between states to extinguish
Saturday, May 18, 2019
In the civilization of the North and South America people, kitchen-gardening started later than the Afroeurasian. But the American civilization started on its own as opposed to the dependence of bestow and borrowing of ideas from one community as was witnessed in the Afroeurasian civilization.The argument active the Mesoamerican civilization has been as a result of single last (known as m other subtlety), while others claim that it was finished learning and copying from others that the civilization developed, i.e. child culture. The civilization arguments has to a larger extend been conjugate to the Olmec process. This is because the Olmec has been con alignred as the earliest civilization groups in the Mesoamerica.Hence some of its earliest civilization practices can exactly be plant within the heartland of Olmec while others are beyond the heartland of Olmec. Some of the artifacts that are only found in the heartland of Olmec include colosal heads, earthen platform and monolith alters. on that point put one across also been cases where other Olmec style artifacts have been found in other assorted parts.There are objects that have been considered to be of Olmec traditions in areas that are out side the heartland of Olmec appearing together with the conventional objects of that place. For instance, at Las Socas, objects created in local tradition contain Olmec iconography (Reilly, p 371).This indicates that the traditional of Olmec was flowing from the Olmec heartland towards other areas and not vice versa. In this case the argument of Olmec to be of the mother culture arises. Michael D Doe is one of the proponents who argue that the Olmecs had a mother culture. There is now little surmise that all later civilization whether Mexican or Maya, ultimately rest on an Olmec base, (Coe, 2002, pp 62).Those advocating for sister culture feel that the Olmec civilization took place simultaneously with the other places. The argument is based on the fac t that Olmec was only among the earliest equal civilizers. Flannery and Marcus have agued that it is only through competitive interactive that civilization can spud place. It is adoptive autonomy and frequ3ent competitive interaction of such chiefdoms that speed up evolution and eventually dissemble useful technologies and sociopolitical strategic available to all regions, (Flannery & Marcus, 2000. pp. 33). indeed, looking at both the arguments of the mother culture and sister culture, it is not right to agree that the Olmecs civilization was a mother culture. For instance, according to Pool (N.d),The Olmecs of San Lorenzo were only a handful of societies in the Americas that had achieved comparable degree of social and political integration by the end of the morsel millennium B.C. On the other hand, sociopolitical complexity varied among Olmec societies within the Gulf coast region, the intensity and effects of interaction with the Olmecs varied across Mesoamerica, and other Fo rmative societies made significant contri entirelyion to the developemtn of a distinctively Mesoamerica civilization tradition, (Pp 2).The use of the term fictile (preclassic) was developed by Gordon Wiley and & Philip Philips (1955, 1958), Where it indicated the village agricultural threshold and/or sedentary life (Pool, Pp.8).The formative period has various prehispanic historical changes taking place. Before 200 B.C. close of the inhabitants lived in small bands that were characterized by several mobility and their main activity being hunting and gathering. Then came the information of a lot of urban centers by 300 A.D. These urban centers came about because with time, the mobility was reduced and the group settled into larger groups and thus staying at one place for longer period than before.The increased settlement was influenced by the fact that people have increased domestication of crops and had also indicated the storage facilities. In the initial formative period (2000 -2500 B.C.)The processes of domestication and sedentarization combined to foster the spread of settled farming villages over much of the area that was becoming Mesoamerica, (Pool, pp.8).The early societies of America shared the hunting and gathering activities with the other societies across the boarders. These behaviors changed among the communities, as they manufacture to a greater extent settled and avoided movements. This lead to the emergence of social hierarchies, centralized governments, and various religious concepts. Their neighbours adopted the practices that emerged from one culture to another, including the OlmecsLike all other complex societies of the America, the Olmecs also depended on this hunting & gathering, domestication of food and puppet as well as fishing for their daily needs. These activities enabled them to build strong social and political hierarchies that integrate many other small communities.Mesoamerican ReligionIn pre classical periods of the Mesoame rican people religion developed due to the influence of the seasonal cycles, In their world view, the development of the corn plant was one of the principle archetypes. Another intrinsically tied to the former was the archetype of the alternating powers of fire and water, derived from the division of the year into two seasons, then wry and rainy seasons, (Obafemi & Olupona, 2004, Pp 199).The Mayan community of the Mesoamerica developed their religion because of the belief that there was a relationship that existed between the valet de chambre being and the spiritual power. They nurtured and developed this belief to the extend of giving kind-hearted sacrifices to the beau ideals. High priests of the Mayan religion performed the human sacrifices. The key aspect of this religion was the great importance it gave to the agriculture and the time timeless of the harvests. The Mayan religious schedule Ezolkin comprised of only 200 days and two cycles each comprises of weeks spanning 30 days and 20 days. Another calendar called tun comprised of 360 days and five added unlucky daysThe Mayan believed in the cycles of rails and to the harvest of the produce. They considered the agriculture product to be a gift from God. To the Mayans, human beings were supposed to be attuned to the cyclical changes so that they can obtain more benefits from them.The offering of sacrifices, of both human and animal was meant to appease the gods. Songs and dances as well as competitions accompanied the sacrifices. There was no separation of civil and religious life. Therefore, the kings acted as both rulers and principal intermediaries between human beings and gods. The other reason that was behind sacrifices was that, many gods needed human support which if was not forthcoming they may overthrow and eventually die.Life after death was determined by the position that a person held before the demise. Therefore if a person held a high status position on earth, that position will quie t be held even after death. While those with lower positions held again the same positions.About the universe, the Mayas believed that the universe would continue to be created and destroyed continuously. The cycle for the destruction would be taking place after a period of about 5000 years. The destruction and creation would be the exact duplicate of the previous one. They perceived the earth to be the subscribe of the giant caiman that was floating in the pool, with the exposed part being flat with four comers. to a higher place the earth, was the human with 13 levels (7 going up, and 6 going down), (http//encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761580499_2/Pre-Columbian_Religions.html). This was of the same oscillation as the rising conniption of the sun.The Maya gods and goddesses formed a family (pantheon), each having four color aspects. The religious followers believed in deities in heaven, but also having counterparts on earth and vice versa. The deities also comprised of counterpar ts of the opposite sex. For example the supreme celestial god Itzama, the aged patron of culture and learning. Kinich Ahau, the sun god, may have been a youthful aspect of Itzama in addition to being his son, (http//encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761580499_2/Pre-Columbian_Religions.html).Like the Mayan, the Aztec believed in the destruction and creation of the universe, but that had multiple differences. They believed to be living in the fifth and final universe, which they considered to be the fifth sun. In this case, they believed that there would be no sixth universe after the fifth destruction, and that there was escape or avoiding of this destruction but it could only have been delayed. The sun was considered to be a warrior that fought a continuous unending war against darkness. Therefore, as long as the sun was still fighting, the fifth universe could not be destroyed. To make sure that the sun go along with the fights, they offered blood it through sacrifices. The sacrifice s were especially of human who were war captives.Befitting their central role as allies of the sun, the Aztecs intellection they lived at the center of the universe. Their earth was divided into four quadrants, each with typical Mesoamerica color-direction symbolism, though the specific pairings of colors and directions were different from those of the Mayas. The four quarters met at the main temple (Templo Mayor) of Tenochtitlan the Aztec capital. This temple was also the point where supernatural forces from the heavens and the underworld came together. The heavens were composed of 13 ascending levels. The sun, the moon, the planets, and the stars traveled through the lower levels. The fastness levels were the homes of winds, storms, colors, and remote gods. The underworld contained 9 levels, all descending, unpleasant, and dangerous, (http//www.angelfire.com/realm/shades/nativeamericans/precolumbionrel4.htm).The pantheon of the gods and goddesses of the Aztec were more complex a nd performing different overlapping functions at different ceremonial functions. The gods were related to different practices. For instance, the Tlaloc was the rain god. There were also the gods that were related to the agricultural produce and deities related to fertility.BibliographyCoe, M.D (2002) Mexico from the Olmecs to the Aztecs, London, Thames and Hudson.Flannery, K. & Marcus, J. (2000) A Formative Mexico Chiefdoms and the myth of theMother culture a Journal of anthropological Archeology, Vols. 19. Issues 1.History of Religion Manna Religion Retrieved on 2nd Nov. 2007 fromhttp//www.clearleadinc.com/site/religion.htmlObafemi J. & Olupona K. (2004) Beyond Primitivism Indigenous religious Traditions andModernity, Routledge, ISBN 041527 320X.Pool A. Christopher (N.d) Olmec Archeology and Early Mesoamerica, Retrieved on 2nd Nov2007 fromhttp//assets.cambridge.org/97805217/88823/excerpt/9780521788823_excerpt.pdfReilly III, F. Kent, (N.d) Art, Cultures and Relationship in the Olmec world in AmericansCivilization of Mesoamerican A Recorder, Blackwell publishing Ltd..